Macrococcus caseolyticus
Taxonomy
Morphology
Cultural characteristics
Biochemical characters
Ecology
Pathogenicity
References
Phylum Firmicutes, Class Bacilli, Order Bacillales, Family Staphylococcaceae, Genus Macrococcus => Macrococcus caseolyticus  
Kloos et al. 1998.
Historical synonyms:
Micrococcus caseolyticus, Evans 1916, Staphylococcus caseolyticus  Schleifer et al. 1982.
Gram positive cocci, 1.1 - 2 μm, nonmotile, nonsporing and occur singly, in pairs,
short chains and clusters.
Colonies are lightly convex, entire, butyrous, glistening, and opaque. Unpigmented or
pale yellow. Colonies grow up to 3-4 mm in diameter on P agar. No or weak
anaerobic growth. Growth in 10% NaCl. Nonhemolytic; may produce partial hemolysis
(greening) of horse blood. Optimum temperature  35 ºC.Growth media: Trypticase Soy
Agar ± 5% sheep blood, Chapman (selective medium with 75 g/l NaCl & mannitol)
Isolated mainly from raw cow milk and dairy products (surface cheese bacteria),  also from the reptiles saliva (Komodo dragon), or
cetaceans milk. Found in sheep and goat  milk and meat products. Susceptible to Novobiocin (1.6 µg).
Nonpathogenic or opportunistic pathogen. Hydrolytic enzymes presumably affect proteolysis and lipolysis during cheese ripening
and thus may contribute to cheese maturation.
  1. Holt J.G., Krieg N.R., Sneath P.H.A., Staley J.T., Wiliams S.T., 1994. Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, Ninth Edition,
    Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore. Group 17, Gram-Positive Cocci, 527-558.
  2. Schleiferi K.H., Kolpper-Balz R., Fischer U., Faller A. & Endl J.: Identification of "Micrococcus candidus" ATCC 14852 as a strain of
    Staphylococcus epidermidis and of "Micrococcus caseolyticus" ATCC 13548 and Micrococcus varians ATCC 29750 as members
    of a new species, Staphylococcus caseolyticus. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1982, 32, 15-20.
  3. Jean-Claude Ogier, Olivier Son, Alexandra Gruss, Patrick Tailliez, & Agnes Delacroix-Buchet: Identification of the Bacterial
    Microflora in Dairy Products by Temporal Temperature Gradient Gel Electrophoresis. Applied and Environmental Microbiology,
    August 2002, p. 3691-3701, Vol. 68, No. 8.
  4. Kloos W.E., Ballard D.N., George C.G., Webster J.A., Hubner R.J., Ludwig W., Schleifer K.H., Fiedler F. & Schubert K.: Delimiting
    the genus Staphylococcus through description of Macrococcus caseolyticus gen. nov., comb. nov. and Macrococcus equipercicus
    sp. nov., Macrococcus bovicus sp. nov. and Macrococcus carouselicus sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1998, 48, 859-877.
  5. Karl-Heinz Schleifer and Julia A. Bell, 2009. Family VIII. Staphylococcaceae fam. nov.. In: (Eds.) P.D. Vos, G. Garrity, D. Jones, N.R.
    Krieg, W. Ludwig, F.A. Rainey, K.-H. Schleifer, W.B. Whitman. Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Volume 3: The
    Firmicutes, Springer, 392-426.
Positive results for nitrate reduction, oxidase, catalase, acid production from: lactose,
maltose, trehalose & fructose.

Negative results for acetoin production, urease, coagulase-rabbit plasma, clumping factor, beta-glucosidase,  acid production from:
mannitol, xylitol, raffinose, xylose, cellbiose, arabinose, salicin,  melezitose, turanose.

Variable results for esculin hydrolysis, pyrrolidonyl arylamidase, deoxyribonuclease, acidification of sucrose.
(c) Costin Stoica
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