Pseudomonas alcaligenes
Cultural characteristics
Biochemical characters
Phylum Proteobacteria, Class Gammaproteobacteria, Order Pseudomonadales, Family Pseudomonadaceae, Genus Pseudomonas,
Pseudomonas alcaligenes
Monias 1928.
Gram-negative, motile with polar monotrichous flagellation, 0.5 x 2-3 μm  rods. PHB is
not accumulated.
On solid medium: round, regular, flat, wrinkled, hemi-translucent, mucous, to 2 mm
colonies. In liquid medium: mud slurry, without veil or ring, forming sediment. May
produce yellow or orange pigments.
Aerobic, optimal temperature 26-30 ºC. Able to grow at 41 ºC.
P. alcaligenes is able to use gasoline as carbon and energy source.
Media: Trypticase Soy Agar  ± 5% sheep blood, Trypticase Soy Broth, Mueller-Hinton
agar; Mac Conkey agar.
Isolated from soil & water, rarely from clinical specimens. The type strain was isolated from swimming pool water.
Generally non-pathogenic bacteria. Human opportunistic pathogen (endocarditis, bacteremia, otitis, meningitis & wound infections).
Pseudomonas alcaligenes is being used for treatment of phenol bearing dye waste, also presenting high potential to degrade
gasoline in treatments after leakage into soils.
  1. Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed., 1994.
  2. Monias B.L.: Classification of Bacterium alcaligenes pyocyaneum and fluorescens. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 1928, 43, 330-
  3. Valenstein P, Bardy GH, Cox CC, Zwadyk P. (1983) Pseudomonas alcaligenes endocarditis. American Journal of Clinical
    Pathology 79(2):245-7.
  4. Claudia Duarte da Cunha; Selma Gomes Ferreira Leite : GASOLINE BIODEGRADATION IN DIFFERENT SOIL MICROCOSMS.
    Braz. J. Microbiol. vol.31 n.1 Sao Paulo Jan./Mar. 2000.
  5. George M. Garrity, Julia A. Bell & Timothy Lilburn: Order IX Pseudomonadales Orla-Jensen 1921 In: Bergey’s Manual of
    Systematic Bacteriology, Second edition,Vol two, part B, George M. Garrity (Editor-in-Chief), 2005, pp. 323-442.
  6. Tratat de microbiologie clinica, D. Buiuc, M. Negut, Ed. Medicala, Bucuresti, 770-771.
Positive results for arginine dehydrolase, catalase, nitrates reduction, oxidase, Tween 80 & Tween 20.
Can utilize: acetate, L-alanine, caprate, caprylate, fumarate, L-glutamate, alpha-ketoglutarate, lactate, L-proline, succinate,
gamma-aminobutyrate, L-arginine, L-leucine, L-malate, pelargonate, propionate, spermine & pyruvate.

Negative results for starch hydrolysis, lecithinase, esculin, H
2S production, indole production, urease, gluconate, malonate, ONPG,
lysine decarboxylase, ornithine decarboxylase & casein hydrolysis.
No utilization of glucose, adonitol, arabinose, cellobiose, dulcitol, glycerol, inositol, lactose, maltose, mannitol, raffinose, rhamnose,
salicin, sorbitol, sucrose, trehalose, xylose, ethanol, fructose, adipate, alpha-aminobutyrate, L-aspartate, L-isoleucine, malonate,
L-valine, azelate, maltose, sebacate, starch, benzoate, betaine, 2,3-butylene glycol, isobutyrate, citraconate, creatine, ethanolamine,
ethylene glycol, gluconate, glutarate, L-serine, glycerate, glycerol, glycine, D-malate, glycolate, histamine, p-hydroxybenzoate,
mannitol, beta-hydroxybutyrate, hydroxymethylglutarate, isovalerate, mucate, saccharate, itaconate, levulinate, L-lysine, DL-norleucine,
L-ornithine, D(-) and L(-)-tartrate, m-tartrate, mesaconate, phenylalanine, sarcosine & tryptamine.

Variable results for lipase test and utilization of: aconitate, caproate, heptanoate, L-tyrosine, valerate, beta-alanine, D-alanine, citrate,
delta-aminovalerate, beta-amylamine, butanol, propanol, putrescine, butylamine, butyrate, dodecane, L-histidine & isobutanol.
(c) Costin Stoica
Culture media
Biochemical tests
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