Subsp. salivarius:
Positive results for alpha-arabinosidase, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, alanyl-phenylalanyl-proline arylamidase,
chymotrypsin, esculin hydrolysis, leucine aminopeptidase, leucine arylamidase, valine aminopeptidase, starch hydrolysis, acid
production from: amygdalin, arbutin, cellobiose, esculin, fructose, glucose, sucrose, maltose, mannose, N-acetylglucosamine,
pullulan & salicin.

Negative results for arginine hydrolysis, alpha-L- or beta-D-fucosidase, alpha-D-galactosidase, glucosaminidase, N-acetyl-alpha-D-

glucosaminidase, beta-N-acetylgalactosidase, beta-Nacetylglucosaminidase, beta-D-glucuronidase, glycyl-tryptophan arylamidase,
hyaluronidase, hippurate hydrolysis, alpha- or beta-mannosidase, pyroglutamic acid arylamidase, pyrrolidonyl arylamidase,
phosphor-beta-galactosidase, beta-sialidase (neuraminidase), alpha- or beta-xylosidase, acid production from: arabinose, arabitol,
adonitol, cyclodextrin, dulcitol, gluconate, glycogen, glycerol, mannitol, melezitose, melibiose, rhamnose, ribose, sorbitol, L-sorbose,
starch, tagatose & xylose.

Variable results for Voges-Proskauer reaction, beta-D-fucosidase, beta-D-galactosidase, beta-maltosidase, beta-lactosidase,
urease, acid production from: galactose, lactose, methyl D-glucoside, inulin, raffinose & trehalose.
Streptococcus salivarius & S. thermophilus
Cultural characteristics
Biochemical characters
Phylum Firmicutes, Class Bacilli, Order Lactobacillales, Family Streptococcaceae, Genus Streptococcus,
- Streptococcus salivarius subsp. salivarius   Andrewes and Horder 1906. Lancefield group K or non-groupable.
- Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus  Farrow and Collins 1984.  Old synonym: S. thermophilus  Orla-Jensen 1919.
S. thermophilus name was proposed to be revived by Schleifer et al. 1991. Lancefield non-groupable.
Gram-positive cocci, 0.7-1.0 μm in diameter, grouped from short to very long chains,
Most strains produce a weak alpha-reaction on blood agar (or gamma reaction for
subsp. salivarius). Small, nonpigmented, smooth or rough colonies. Grow at 37 ºC,
can grow at 45 but not at 47 ºC; many S. thermophilus strains grow at 50 ºC
and can survive heating at 65 ºC for 30 minutes. No growth at 10 ºC.
Facultatively anaerobic.
Subsp. salivarius requires minimum nine aminoacids, five vitamins and uracil.
Subsp. thermophilus requires amino acids and six B-vitamins.
Subsp. salivarius was found in human mouth (saliva) & feces, occasionally from blood.
Subsp. thermophilus was isolated from milk and milk products (Swiss cheese and yogurt, heated and pasteurized milk).
Unknown. Subsp. thermophilus is often used as starter culture for milk products.
Subsp. salivaris was rarely isolated from the blood of patients with infective endocarditis. Some strains have been shown to be
cariogenic in gnotobiotic rats.
  1. Holt J.G., Krieg N.R., Sneath P.H.A., Staley J.T. and Williams S.T., 1994. Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, Ninth
    Edition, Williams & Wilkins, A Waverly Company, Baltimore, pp 527-558.
  2. Robert A. Whiley and Jeremy M. Hardie, 2009. Genus I. Streptococcus Rosenbach 1884, 22AL. In: (Eds.) P.D. Vos, G. Garrity, D.
    Jones, N.R. Krieg, W. Ludwig, F.A. Rainey, K.-H. Schleifer, W.B. Whitman. Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Volume 3:
    The Firmicutes, Springer, 655-711
  3. Howey R.T., Lock C.M. & Moore L.V.H: Subspecies names automatically created by Rule 46. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1990, 40, 317-
  4. Farrow J.A.E. & Collins M.D: DNA base composition, DNA-DNA homology and long-chain fatty acid studies on Streptococcus
    thermophilus and Streptococcus salivarius. J. Gen. Microbiol., 1984, 130, 357-362.
Subsp. thermophilus:
Positive results for beta-galactosidase, Voges-Proskauer reaction, leucine arylamidase, acid production from: fructose, glucose,
lactose, mannose & sucrose.

Negative results for esculin hydrolysis, arginine hydrolysis, casein hydrolysis, gelatin hydrolysis, hippurate hydrolysis, urease, acid
phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, alpha-galactosidase, cysteine arylamidase, beta-glucuronidase, alpha-glucosidase,
beta-glucosidase, alpha-fucosidase, pyrrolidonylarylamidase, N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase & valine arylamidase, acid production
from: N-acetylglucosamine, adonitol, amygdalin, arabinose, cellobiose, dulcitol, erythritol, gluconate, glycerol, glycogen, inulin,
maltose, mannitol, methyl D-glucoside, methyl D-mannoside, methyl D-xyloside, rhamnose, salicin, sorbitol, trehalose & xylose.

Variable results for starch hydrolysis, acid production from: arbutin, galactose, melezitose, melibiose, raffinose & ribose.
(c) Costin Stoica
Culture media
Biochemical tests
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