Abiotrophia defectiva
Taxonomy
Morphology
Cultural characteristics
Biochemical characters
Ecology
Pathogenicity
References
Phylum Firmicutes, Class Bacilli, Order Lactobacillales, Family Aerococcaceae, Genus Abiotrophia, Abiotrophia defectiva  (Bouvet et
al. 1989) Kawamura et al. 1995. Single species of the genus.
Old synonym:
Streptococcus defectivus Bouvet et al. 1989
Gram positive, 0.40-0.55 μm, nonmotile cocci. Grouped in pairs or chains.
Alpha-hemolytic colonies on fresh sheep blood agar,  max 0.2 mm in diameter.
Growth at 37 ºC. Facultatively anaerobic. Nutritionally fastidious: no growth or only
slight growth occurs on a blood agar plate without supplements. Thiol compounds
(0.01% l-cysteine is usually used) or vitamin B6 (0.001% pyridoxal hydrochloride is
usually used) is required for growth. Grows as satellite colonies adjacent to
Staphylococcus epidermidis. No growth at 10 and 45 ºC. No growth in the presence of
6.5% NaCl.
Isolated from human blood samples. Resistant to optochin. Susceptible to vancomycin.
Isolated mostly from the blood of patients with endocarditis or bacteremia (cases are rare).
  1. Holt J.G., Krieg N.R., Sneath P.H.A., Staley J.T. and Williams S.T., 1994. Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, Ninth
    Edition, Williams & Wilkins, A Waverly Company, Baltimore, pp 527-558.
  2. Bouvet A., Grimont F. & Grimont P.A.D.: Streptococcus defectivus sp. nov. and Streptococcus adjacens sp. nov., nutritionally variant
    streptococci from human clinical specimens. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1989, 39, 290-294.
  3. Kawamura Y., Hou X.G., Sultana F., Liu S., Yamamoto H. & Ezaki T.: Transfer of Streptococcus adjacens and Streptococcus
    defectivus to Abiotrophia gen. nov. as Abiotrophia adiacens comb. nov. and Abiotrophia defectiva comb. nov., respectively. Int. J.
    Syst. Bacteriol., 1995, 45, 798-803.
  4. Takayuki Ezaki And Yoshiaki Kawamura, 2009. Genus II. Abiotrophia (Bouvet, Grimonet and Grimont 1989) Kawamura, Hou,
    Sultana, Liu, Yamamoto and Ezaki 1995, 802VP. In: (Eds.) P.D. Vos, G. Garrity, D. Jones, N.R. Krieg, W. Ludwig, F.A. Rainey, K.-H.
    Schleifer, W.B. Whitman. Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Volume 3: The Firmicutes, Springer, 536-538.
Positive results for pyrrolidonyl-arylamidase, alpha-galactosidase, beta-galactosidase, leucine arylamidase, acid production from:
glucose & trehalose.

Negative results for alkaline phosphatase, arginine hydrolysis, catalase, beta-glucuronidase, N-acetyl-beta-glucosamidase,
hippurate hydrolysis, oxidase, acid production from: inulin, ribose & tagatose.

Variable results for lactose, mannitol, sorbitol & raffinose acidification.
(c) Costin Stoica
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