Granulicatella/Abiotrophia adiacens (Streptococcus adjacens)
Taxonomy
Morphology
Cultural characteristics
Biochemical characters
Ecology
Pathogenicity
References
Phylum Firmicutes, Class Bacilli, Order Lactobacillales, Family Streptococcaceae, Genus Streptococcus, Streptococcus adjacens
Bouvet et al. 1989. Moved to  Family Aerococcaceae, Genus Abiotrophia,
Abiotrophia adiacens (Bouvet et al. 1989) Kawamura et al.
1995. Synonym:
Granulicatella adiacens (Bouvet et al. 1989) Collins and Lawson 2000.
Gram-positive, 0.4-0.6 μm, chained cocci (sometimes pleomorphic: coccobacilli, cocci
or rod-shaped cells).
Small, 0.2 mm in diameter, alpha-hemolytic, colonies (after 48 hours incubation).
Aerobic and  anaerobic growth, 37.0 ºC / 48 hours. No growth at 10 or 45 ºC.
Grow on complex media (Trypticase soy agar with defibrinated sheep blood, fresh or
enriched with 100 mg  L-cysteine per liter or 10 mg of pyridoxal hydrochloride
per liter ). Grow dependent to a
Staphylococcus epidermidis / aureus strain, another
streptocococcus or other species (satellitism).
Isolated from oral cavity, intestine & urinary tract in humans. Rarely from animals.
Possible cause of endocarditis and bacteremia in humans (rarely). Resistant to optochin and susceptible to vancomycin.
  1. Takayuki Ezaki and Yoshiaki Kawamura, 2009.  Genus II. Abiotrophia (Bouvet, Grimonet and Grimont 1989) Kawamura, Hou,
    Sultana, Liu, Yamamoto and Ezaki 1995, 802VP. In: (Eds.) P.D. Vos, G. Garrity, D. Jones, N.R. Krieg, W. Ludwig, F.A. Rainey, K.-H.
    Schleifer, W.B. Whitman. Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Volume 3: The Firmicutes, Springer, 536-538.
  2. Holt J.G., Krieg N.R., Sneath P.H.A., Staley J.T. and Williams S.T., 1994. Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, Ninth
    Edition, Williams & Wilkins, A Waverly Company, Baltimore, pp 527-558.
  3. Bouvet A., Grimont F. & Grimont P.A.D.: Streptococcus defectivus sp. nov. and Streptococcus adjacens sp. nov., nutritionally variant
    streptococci from human clinical specimens. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1989, 39, 290-294.
  4. Kawamura Y., Hou X.G., Sultana F., Liu S., Yamamoto H. & Ezaki T.: Transfer of Streptococcus adjacens and Streptococcus
    defectivus to Abiotrophia gen. nov. as Abiotrophia adiacens comb. nov. and Abiotrophia defectiva comb. nov., respectively. Int. J.
    Syst. Bacteriol., 1995, 45, 798-803.
Positive results for pyrrolidonearylamidase, beta-glucuronidase, acid production from
glucose & sucrose. Lactic acid is the predominant acid produced.

Negative results for alkaline phosphatase, arginine dihydrolase, N-acetyl-beta-glucosamidase, hippurate hydrolysis, esculin
hydrolysis, Voges-Proskauer reaction, alpha-galactosidase, beta-galactosidase, catalase, oxidase, acid production from: ribose,
mannitol, pullulan, sorbitol, lactose, tagatose & trehalose.
(c) Costin Stoica
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