Staphylococcus xylosus cells, Gram-staining
S. xylosus colonies on Sheep blood agar
Staphylococcus xylosus
Taxonomy
Morphology
Cultural characteristics
Biochemical characters
Ecology
Pathogenicity
References
Phylum Firmicutes, Class Bacilli, Order Bacillales, Family Staphylococcaceae, Genus Staphylococcus, Staphylococcus xylosus  
Schleifer & Kloos 1975.
Gram positive cocci, nonmotile, nonsporing. Occur singly or grouped in pairs or
tetrads.
Colonies reach 5-10 mm in diameter and varies from raised to slightly convex, rough
or smooth, dull to glistening, usually opaque, with entire, undulate, or crenate
margins. Color varies from white to yellowish to yellow-orange. Nonhemolytic.
Facultatively anaerobic, grow better aerobically.  Optimum temperature 25-35 ºC
(range 10-40 ºC). Media: Trypticase Soy Agar ± 5% sheep blood, Chapman, P agar.
Isolated from skin and clinical samples (human & animal), widely distributed in nature.
Resistant to novobiocin and lysozyme. Susceptible to lysostaphin. Can grow in habitats
containing only an inorganic nitrogen source.
Usually is a commensal on the skin of humans and animals.
It is used as a fermenting agent in the production of meat (sausage) and milk (cheese)
products (strains with proteolytic activity).
May cause dermatitis, urinary-tract infections, bacteremia. Some strains are capable of
colonizing surfaces by forming biofilms.
Experimental infection: granulomatous dermatitis in mice.
  1. Holt J.G., Krieg N.R., Sneath P.H.A., Staley J.T., Wiliams S.T., 1994. Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, Ninth Edition,
    Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore. Group 17, Gram-Positive Cocci, 527-558.
  2. Schleifer K.H. & Kloos W.E.: Isolation and characterization of staphylococci from human skin. I. Amended descriptions of
    Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus saprophyticus and descriptions of three new species: Staphylococcus cohnii,
    Staphylococcus haemolyticus, and Staphylococcus xylosus. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 1975, 25, 50-61.
  3. Nazzaro, F., Luccia, A. di, Tremonte, P., Grazia, L., Sorrentino, E., Maurelli, L., Coppola, R. : Evaluation of proteolytic activity of
    Staphylococcus xylosus strains in Soppressata Molisana, a typical Southern Italy fermented sausage. Annals of Microbiology,
    2004 (Vol. 54) (No. 3) 269-281.
  4. Young Suk Won, Hyo Jung Kwon, Goo Taeg Oh, Bang Hyun Kim, Chul Ho Lee, Yong Ho Park, Byung Hwa Hyun and Yang Kyu
    Choi: Identification of Staphylococcus xylosus Isolated from C57BL/6J-Nos2tm1Lau Mice with Dermatitis. MICROBIOLOGY and
    IMMUNOLOGY Vol. 46 (2002) , No. 9 pp.629-632.
  5. Karl-Heinz Schleifer and Julia A. Bell, 2009. Family VIII. Staphylococcaceae fam. nov.. In: (Eds.) P.D. Vos, G. Garrity, D. Jones, N.R.
    Krieg, W. Ludwig, F.A. Rainey, K.-H. Schleifer, W.B. Whitman. Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Volume 3: The
    Firmicutes, Springer, 392-426.
Positive results for urease, beta-glucosidase, beta-galactosidase, catalase, acid
production from: mannose, arabinose, fructose, glucose, glycerol, trehalose, xylose
& sucrose.

Negative results for oxidase, coagulase-rabbit plasma deoxyribonuclease, heat-
stable nuclease, clumping factor, arginine dihydrolase, acid production from:
raffinose, adonitol, arabitol, cellobiose, dulcitol,
erythritol, erythrose, fucose, lyxose, melezitose, sorbose, tagatose & xylitol.

Variable results for nitrate reduction, alkaline phosphatase, acetoin production
(Voges-Proskauer reaction), beta-glucuronidase, lipase, acid production from:
lactose, mannitol, salicin, inositol, sorbitol, galactose, ribose & turanose.
(c) Costin Stoica
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