Staphylococcus xylosus cells, Gram-staining
S. xylosus colonies on Sheep blood agar
Staphylococcus xylosus
Cultural characteristics
Biochemical characters
Phylum Firmicutes, Class Bacilli, Order Bacillales, Family Staphylococcaceae, Genus Staphylococcus, Staphylococcus xylosus  
Schleifer & Kloos 1975.
Gram positive cocci, nonmotile, nonsporing. Occur singly or grouped in pairs or
Colonies reach 5-10 mm in diameter and varies from raised to slightly convex, rough
or smooth, dull to glistening, usually opaque, with entire, undulate, or crenate
margins. Color varies from white to yellowish to yellow-orange. Nonhemolytic.
Facultatively anaerobic, grow better aerobically.  Optimum temperature 25-35 ºC
(range 10-40 ºC). Media: Trypticase Soy Agar ± 5% sheep blood, Chapman, P agar.
Isolated from skin and clinical samples (human & animal), widely distributed in nature.
Resistant to novobiocin and lysozyme. Susceptible to lysostaphin. Can grow in habitats
containing only an inorganic nitrogen source.
Usually is a commensal on the skin of humans and animals.
It is used as a fermenting agent in the production of meat (sausage) and milk (cheese)
products (strains with proteolytic activity).
May cause dermatitis, urinary-tract infections, bacteremia. Some strains are capable of
colonizing surfaces by forming biofilms.
Experimental infection: granulomatous dermatitis in mice.
  1. Holt J.G., Krieg N.R., Sneath P.H.A., Staley J.T., Wiliams S.T., 1994. Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, Ninth Edition,
    Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore. Group 17, Gram-Positive Cocci, 527-558.
  2. Schleifer K.H. & Kloos W.E.: Isolation and characterization of staphylococci from human skin. I. Amended descriptions of
    Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus saprophyticus and descriptions of three new species: Staphylococcus cohnii,
    Staphylococcus haemolyticus, and Staphylococcus xylosus. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 1975, 25, 50-61.
  3. Nazzaro, F., Luccia, A. di, Tremonte, P., Grazia, L., Sorrentino, E., Maurelli, L., Coppola, R. : Evaluation of proteolytic activity of
    Staphylococcus xylosus strains in Soppressata Molisana, a typical Southern Italy fermented sausage. Annals of Microbiology,
    2004 (Vol. 54) (No. 3) 269-281.
  4. Young Suk Won, Hyo Jung Kwon, Goo Taeg Oh, Bang Hyun Kim, Chul Ho Lee, Yong Ho Park, Byung Hwa Hyun and Yang Kyu
    Choi: Identification of Staphylococcus xylosus Isolated from C57BL/6J-Nos2tm1Lau Mice with Dermatitis. MICROBIOLOGY and
    IMMUNOLOGY Vol. 46 (2002) , No. 9 pp.629-632.
  5. Karl-Heinz Schleifer and Julia A. Bell, 2009. Family VIII. Staphylococcaceae fam. nov.. In: (Eds.) P.D. Vos, G. Garrity, D. Jones, N.R.
    Krieg, W. Ludwig, F.A. Rainey, K.-H. Schleifer, W.B. Whitman. Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Volume 3: The
    Firmicutes, Springer, 392-426.
Positive results for urease, beta-glucosidase, beta-galactosidase, catalase, acid
production from: mannose, arabinose, fructose, glucose, glycerol, trehalose, xylose
& sucrose.

Negative results for oxidase, coagulase-rabbit plasma deoxyribonuclease, heat-
stable nuclease, clumping factor, arginine dihydrolase, acid production from:
raffinose, adonitol, arabitol, cellobiose, dulcitol,
erythritol, erythrose, fucose, lyxose, melezitose, sorbose, tagatose & xylitol.

Variable results for nitrate reduction, alkaline phosphatase, acetoin production
(Voges-Proskauer reaction), beta-glucuronidase, lipase, acid production from:
lactose, mannitol, salicin, inositol, sorbitol, galactose, ribose & turanose.
(c) Costin Stoica
Culture media
Biochemical tests
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