Staphylococcus simulans
Taxonomy
Morphology
Cultural characteristics
Biochemical characters
Ecology
Pathogenicity
References
Phylum Firmicutes, Class Bacilli, Order Bacillales, Family Staphylococcaceae, Genus Staphylococcus, Staphylococcus simulans  
Kloos and Schleifer 1975.
Gram-positive cocci, 0.8–1.5 μm in diameter, nonmotile, nonsporing.
Colonies are  nonpigmented (gray-white), slightly raised, smooth, glistening,
translucent, with entire margins, 5–7.5 mm in diameter. Weak hemolysis may be
produced by some strains. Facultatively anaerobic, 37 ºC (15 – 45 ºC). Grow on
media: Trypticase Soy Yeast extract Agar ± 5% sheep blood, Trypticase Soy Yeast
extract  Broth, Nutrient agar / broth, P agar.
Isolated from skin, urine & clinical samples (human & animal). Sensible to novobiocin and lysostaphin. Resistant to lysozyme
In animals, the pathogen has been isolated and implicated in “bumble foot” disease or ulcerative pododermatitis, (described in rats
and birds), also in bovine mastitis.
To humans is frequently acquired through contact with domestic animals. Has been isolated in cases of osteomyelitis, prosthetic joint
infections, and infected internal fixation devices.
  1. Holt J.G., Krieg N.R., Sneath P.H.A., Staley J.T., Wiliams S.T., 1994. Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, Ninth Edition,
    Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore. Group 17, Gram-Positive Cocci, 527-558.
  2. Kloos W.E. & Schleifer K.H.: Isolation and characterization of staphylococci from human skin. II. Description of four new species:
    Staphylococcus warneri, Staphylococcus capitis, Staphylococcus hominis, and Staphylococcus simulans. International Journal of
    Systematic Bacteriology, 1975, 25, 62-79.
  3. Al Kline: Staphylococcus simulans Osteomyelitis of the Foot: A case report. Podiatry Internet Journal 2 (3):2 2007.
  4. S. Waage, T. Mork, A. Roros, D. Aasland, A. Hunshamar, & S. A. Odegaard:  Bacteria Associated with Clinical Mastitis in Dairy
    Heifers. Journal of Dairy Science Vol. 82, No. 4, 1999.
  5. Karl-Heinz Schleifer and Julia A. Bell, 2009. Family VIII. Staphylococcaceae fam. nov.. In: (Eds.) P.D. Vos, G. Garrity, D. Jones, N.R.
    Krieg, W. Ludwig, F.A. Rainey, K.-H. Schleifer, W.B. Whitman. Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Volume 3: The
    Firmicutes, Springer, 392-426.
Positive results for nitrate reduction, arginine dihydrolase, urease, beta-galactosidase,
catalase (sometimes weak), acid production from: fructose, glucose, glycerol, lactose,
mannitol & sucrose.

Negative results for oxidase,  coagulase-rabbit plasma, clumping factor, heat-stable
nuclease, beta-glucosidase, gelatinase acid production from: adonitol, arabinose, arabitol, cellobiose, dulcitol, erythritol, erythrose,
fucose, gentiobiose, inositol, lyxose, melezitose, raffinose, salicin, turanose, tagatose, xylose & xylitol.

Variable results for acetoin production (weak), alkaline phosphatase (weak), beta-glucuronidase, acid production from: galactose,
maltose, mannose, ribose & trehalose.
(c) Costin Stoica
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