Staphylococcus hominis
Taxonomy
Morphology
Cultural  characteristics
Biochemical characters
Ecology
Pathogenicity
References
Phylum Firmicutes, Class Bacilli, Order Bacillales, Family Staphylococcaceae, Genus Staphylococcus,
Staphylococcus hominis subsp. hominis   Kloos and Schleifer 1975,
Staphylococcus hominis subsp. novobiosepticus  Kloos et al. 1998.
Gram-positive cocci, 1-1.5 μm in diameter, nonmotile, nonsporing, occuring singly, or
forming tetrads &  pairs.
Colonies are smooth, opaque, raised to umbonate, and butyrous, with entire
margins, grayish-white or cream to yellow-orange. Facultative anaerobe, but growth is
much better under aerobic conditions and very poor anaerobically. Nonhemolytic on
sheep or bovine blood agar. Temperature range for growth 20–45 ºC; optimum 30–40
ºC.  Grow on Trypticase Soy Agar ± 5% sheep blood, P agar.
Isolated from human & animal skin and clinical specimens (blood cultures, wounds).
Commensal of the skin. May produce nosocomial infections in neonates and catetherized  patients.
  1. Holt J.G., Krieg N.R., Sneath P.H.A., Staley J.T., Wiliams S.T., 1994. Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, Ninth Edition,
    Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore. Group 17, Gram-Positive Cocci, 527-558.
  2. Kloos W.E. & Schleifer K.H.: Isolation and characterization of staphylococci from human skin. II. Description of four new species:
    Staphylococcus warneri, Staphylococcus capitis, Staphylococcus hominis, and Staphylococcus simulans. International Journal of
    Systematic Bacteriology, 1975, 25, 62-79.
  3. Kloos W.E., George C.G., Olgiate J.S., Van Pelt L., McKinnon M.L., Zimmer B.L., Muller E., Weinstein M.P. & Mirrett S.:
    Staphylococcus hominis subsp. novobiosepticus subsp. nov., a novel trehalose- and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine-negative,
    novobiocin- and multiple-antibiotic-resistant subspecies isolated from human blood cultures. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1998, 48, 799-
    812.
  4. Karl-Heinz Schleifer and Julia A. Bell, 2009. Family VIII. Staphylococcaceae fam. nov.. In: (Eds.) P.D. Vos, G. Garrity, D. Jones, N.R.
    Krieg, W. Ludwig, F.A. Rainey, K.-H. Schleifer, W.B. Whitman. Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Volume 3: The
    Firmicutes, Springer, 392-426.
S. hominis subsp. novobiosepticus can be distinguished mainly  from S. hominis subsp. hominis by its novobiocin resistance, lack of
arginine dihydrolase activity and failure to produce acid aerobically from D- trehalose and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine.

Positive results for catalase, lipase, urease, acid production from beta-D-fructose, D-glucose, glycerol, maltose & sucrose.

Negative results for oxidase, alkaline phosphatase, caseinase, coagulase, DN-ase, beta-galactosidase, beta-glucosidase,
beta-glucuronidase, gelatinase, ornithine decarboxylase, staphylocoagulase, acid production from: L-arabinose, D-cellobiose,
D-mannose, D-raffinose, salicin, D-sorbitol & D-xylose.

Variable results for arginine dihydrolase (negative for subsp. novobiosepticus), acid production from: N-acetylglucosamine (negative
for subsp. novobiosepticus), galactose, alpha-lactose, D-mannitol, D-melezitose, D-trehalose (negative for subsp. novobiosepticus)
& turanose.
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