Staphylococcus gallinarum
Taxonomy
Morphology
Cultural characteristics
Biochemical characters
Ecology
Pathogenicity
References
Phylum Firmicutes, Class Bacilli, Order Bacillales, Family Staphylococcaceae, Genus Staphylococcus, Staphylococcus gallinarum  
Devriese et al. 1983.
Gram-positive cocci, nonmotile, nonsporing.  
Small, flat, yellowish or nonpigmented, S-type colonies. Weak hemolysis. Colony
diameter  5–10 mm after 2 days on tryptone soy agar or 4–7 mm in diameter after 2
days on BHI agar.
Facultatively anaerobic, grow better aerobically. Temperature 37 ºC, range 25 -42 ºC.
Isolated from the skin of poultry, from caecum of Japanese quails; from silkworm larvae; also from Komodo dragon’s saliva (1
isolate), cat skin (1 isolate) and some human clinical samples. Resistant to Novobiocin.
Is a part of normal skin flora of poultry. Produce a lanthionine containing antibiotic ‘gallidermin’ .
Cause hemolymph septicemia by its cytotoxic effect on the hemocytes of silkworm
Bombyx mori (Flacherie symptom).
  1. Holt J.G., Krieg N.R., Sneath P.H.A., Staley J.T., Wiliams S.T., 1994. Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, Ninth Edition,
    Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore. Group 17, Gram-Positive Cocci, 527-558.
  2. Devriese L.A., Poutrel B., Kilpper-Balz R. & Schleifer K.H.: Staphylococcus gallinarum and Staphylococcus caprae, two new species
    from animals. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1983, 33, 480-486.
  3. Lauková A; Marounek M; Bod'a K: Characteristics of enterococci and staphylococci isolated from the crop and caecum of Japanese
    quails exposed to microgravity conditions. Institute of Animal Physiology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Kosice, Slovak Republic.
  4. Joel M. Montgomery, Don Gillespie, Putra Sastrawan, Terry M. Fredeking, & George L. Steward: Aerobic salivary bacteria in wild and
    captive Komodo dragons. Journal of  Wildlife Diseases, 38(3), 2002, pp. 545–551
  5. R. Kellner, et al: Gallidermin: a new lanthionine-containing polypeptide antibiotic. Eur. J. Biochem. 177, 53 (1988).
  6. Karl-Heinz Schleifer and Julia A. Bell, 2009. Family VIII. Staphylococcaceae fam. nov.. In: (Eds.) P.D. Vos, G. Garrity, D. Jones, N.R.
    Krieg, W. Ludwig, F.A. Rainey, K.-H. Schleifer, W.B. Whitman. Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Volume 3: The Firmicutes,
    Springer, 392-426.
Positive results for nitrate reduction, alkaline phosphatase, urease, catalase, beta-
glucosidase, esculin hydrolysis, acid production from amygdalin, L-arabinose, arbutin,
mannose, trehalose, mannitol, raffinose, xylose, sucrose, fructose, fucose (weak),
cellobiose, salicin, beta-gentibiose, galactose & melezitose.

Negative results for arginine dihydrolase, oxidase, acetoin production, hyaluronidase, coagulase-rabbit plasma, clumping factor,
fibrinolysin, deoxyribonuclease, heat-stable nuclease, beta-glucuronidase, beta-galactosidase, acid production from rhamnose

Variable results for lactose & xylitol acid production.
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