Staphylococcus epidermidis
Taxonomy
Morphology
Cultural characteristics
Biochemical characters
Ecology
Pathogenicity
References
Phylum Firmicutes, Class Bacilli, Order Bacillales, Family Staphylococcaceae, Genus Staphylococcus, Staphylococcus epidermidis   
Evans 1916. Old synonyms: (
Albococcus epidermidis  Winslow and Winslow 1908; Micrococcus epidermidis  Hucker 1924).
Gram-positive cocci, 0.5 - 1.5 μm, nonmotile, nonsporing. Occur in pairs and tetrads.
Small, white or yellow (usually nonpigmented - gray or grayish white), approximately
2.5-4 mm in diameter, S-type colonies. Growth in broth is first turbid, later becoming
clear with a fine or slightly mucoid deposit. Facultatively anaerobic,  optimal
temperature 26 - 37 ºC (growth range 15 – 45 ºC). Grow on media: Trypticase Soy
Agar ± 5% sheep blood, Chapman (selective medium with 75 g/l NaCl & mannitol),
Mueller-Hinton agar.
Isolated from human and animal skin and mucous membranes. Found in fermenting cigar tobacco leafs. Susceptible to Novobiocin.
Usually nonpathogenic, may be an important cause of infection in humans whit compromised immunity, also nosocomial pathogen
associated with infections of  implanted medical devices. Produces a slime resulting in biofilm formation on the surface of a
prosthetic device (catheter). Bacteremia, endophtalmitis and endocarditis.
Subclinical mastitis in goats.
Bacteria is a pig pathogen causing contagious impetigo in swine.
Produces the antibiotic ‘Epidermin’.
  1. Holt J.G., Krieg N.R., Sneath P.H.A., Staley J.T., Wiliams S.T., 1994. Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, Ninth Edition,
    Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore. Group 17, Gram-Positive Cocci, 527-558.
  2. Winslow C.E.A. & Winslow A.R.: The systematic relationships of the Coccaceae. John Wiley and Sons (eds.), New York, 1908, pp.
    1-300.
  3. Evans A.C.: The bacteria of milk freshly drawn from normal udders. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 1916, 18, 437-476.
  4. Jerome J. Perry: Isolation of Staphylococcus epidermidis from Tobacco. Applied Microbiology, Apr. 1969, p. 647.
  5. P. Moroni, G. Pisoni, M. Antonini, G. Ruffo, S. Carli, G. Varisco and P. Boettcher: Subclinical Mastitis and Antimicrobial Susceptibility
    of Staphylococcus caprae and Staphylococcus epidermidis Isolated from Two Italian Goat Herds. J. Dairy Sci. 88:1694-1704.
  6. Karl-Heinz Schleifer and Julia A. Bell, 2009. Family VIII. Staphylococcaceae fam. nov.. In: (Eds.) P.D. Vos, G. Garrity, D. Jones, N.R.
    Krieg, W. Ludwig, F.A. Rainey, K.-H. Schleifer, W.B. Whitman. Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Volume 3: The
    Firmicutes, Springer, 392-426.
Positive results for nitrate reduction, alkaline phosphatase, arginine dihydrolase,
urease, acetoin production, catalase, acid production from: mannose & sucrose.

Negative results for starch hydrolysis, oxidase, growth on (NH
4)2SO4, coagulase-rabbit
plasma, clumping factor, ornithine decarboxylase, deoxyribonuclease agar, heat-stable
nuclease, beta-glucuronidase, beta-galactosidase,  acid production from: erythritol, erythrose, gentiobiose, inositol, lyxose, sorbose,
tagatose, trehalose, mannitol, xylitol, raffinose, arabinose, cellobiose, fucose & salicin.

Variable results for hyaluronidase, beta-glucosidase, acid production from: lactose, galactose, melezitose, turanose & ribose.
(c) Costin Stoica
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