S. chromogenes cells, Gram-staining
Staphylococcus chromogenes on Sheep Blood Agar
Staphylococcus chromogenes
Taxonomy
Morphology
Cultural characteristics
Biochemical characters
Ecology
Pathogenicity
References
Phylum Firmicutes, Class Bacilli, Order Bacillales, Family Staphylococcaceae, Genus Staphylococcus, Staphylococcus chromogenes  
Hajek et al. 1987.


Old synonym:
Staphylococcus hyicus subsp. chromogenes Devriese et al. 1978.
Gram-positive cocci, 0,8 - 1 μm, nonmotile, nonsporing. Occur singly, in pairs, tetrads
or clusters.
Colonies are nonhemolytic, yellow / orange pigmented, glistening, butyrous, with
entire margins, 4–7 mm diameter. Some strains isolated mainly from swine may not
be pigmented. Facultatively anaerobic. Optimum growth temperature 37 ºC. Grow on
media: P agar, Trypticase Soy Agar ± 5% sheep blood, Chapman (selective medium
with 75 g/l NaCl & mannitol), Mueller-Hinton agar. Growth in medium containing 10%
NaCl, but no growth or only weak growth at 15% NaCl.
Isolated from swine, cattle & birds skin, from ruminants’ milk,  rarely from humans.
Susceptible to Novobiocin.
Low pathogenicity - dermatitis / superficial lesions & subclinical mastitis. Together
with other staphylococci may be involved in ‘Chronic Fatigue Syndrome’ in humans  
(also, experiments in dogs show same clinical aspect).
  1. Holt J.G., Krieg N.R., Sneath P.H.A., Staley J.T., Wiliams S.T., 1994. Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, Ninth Edition,
    Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore. Group 17, Gram-Positive Cocci, 527-558.
  2. Hajek V., Devriese L.A., Mordarski M., Goodfellow M., Pulverer G. & Varaldo P.E.: Elevation of Staphylococcus hyicus subsp.
    chromogenes (Devriese et al. 1978) to species status: Staphylococcus chromogenes (Devriese et al. 1978) comb. nov. Syst. Appl.
    Microbiol., 1986, 8, 169-173.
  3. Karl-Heinz Schleifer and Julia A. Bell, 2009. Family VIII. Staphylococcaceae fam. nov.. In: (Eds.) P.D. Vos, G. Garrity, D. Jones, N.R.
    Krieg, W. Ludwig, F.A. Rainey, K.-H. Schleifer, W.B. Whitman. Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Volume 3: The
    Firmicutes, Springer, 392-426.
Positive results for nitrate reduction, alkaline phosphatase, arginine dihydrolase,
deoxyribonuclease, catalase, acid production from: mannose, lactose, trehalose,
galactose, glucose, glycerol, ribose & fructose.

Negative results for oxidase, acetoin production, hyaluronidase, coagulase-rabbit
plasma, clumping factor, fibrinolysin, heat-stable nuclease, beta-glucuronidase,
beta-galactosidase, H
2S production, indole production, Tween 80 hydrolysis, acid
production from: xylitol, raffinose, xylose, arabinose, cellobiose, fucose, salicin
tagatose & melezitose.

Variable results for urease, beta-glucosidase, acid production from mannitol &
turanose.
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