Legend: +  positive 90-100%, - negative 90-100%,  d positive 25-74%.
Staphylococcus carnosus
Taxonomy
Morphology
Cultural characteristics
Biochemical characters
Ecology
Pathogenicity
References
Phylum Firmicutes, Class Bacilli, Order Bacillales, Family Staphylococcaceae, Genus Staphylococcus, Staphylococcus carnosus  
Schleifer & Fischer 1982. Has been divided in 2 subspecies:
Staphylococcus carnosus subsp. carnosus  Schleifer & Fischer 1982
Staphylococcus carnosus subsp. utilis  Probst et al. 1998

Closely related to
Staphylococcus piscifermentans.
Gram-positive cocci, 0.5-1.5 μm, non-motile, non-sporing, occuring singly or in pairs.
Colonies are gray-white, slightly raised, smooth, and slightly glistening. May produce
pigment during storage. Colony diameter reach 1-3 mm. Nonhemolytic.
Facultatively anaerobic. Temperature range 15-45 ºC; optimum 30-40 ºC. Grow in
medium containing 15% NaCl. Grow on media: Trypticase Soy Agar ± 5% sheep
blood, Chapman (selective medium with 75 g/l de NaCl & mannitol).
Isolated from processed foods, mainly meat products (dry sausages, salami & hams), soy sauce, also from sauces containing fish
or shrimps. Natural habitat is unknown. Susceptible to Novobiocin.
Unknown pathogenicity (no case of infection due to Staphylococcus carnosus was described).
Do not produce coagulase, clumping factor, hyaluronidase, hemolysins or enterotoxins.
Contribute to the development of the meat products flavour an colour (due to reduction of nitrate to nitrite, production of  
phenylacetaldehyde, 2-methyl-l-butanol, dimethyldisulphide, dimethyltrisulphide, diacetyl, ethanol and ethyl esters and also unable to
produce histamine, cadaverine and putrescine).
  1. Holt J.G., Krieg N.R., Sneath P.H.A., Staley J.T., Wiliams S.T., 1994. Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, Ninth Edition,
    Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore. Group 17, Gram-Positive Cocci, 527-558.
  2. Schleifer K.H. & Fischer U.: Description of a new species of the genus Staphylococcus: Staphylococcus carnosus. Int. J. Syst.
    Bacteriol., 1982, 32, 153-156.
  3. Probst A.J., Hertel C., Richter L., Wassill L., Ludwig W. & Hammes W.P.: Staphylococcus condimenti sp. nov., from soy sauce
    mash, and Staphylococcus carnosus (Schleifer and Fischer 1982) subsp. utilis subsp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1998, 48, 651-
    658.
  4. Karl-Heinz Schleifer and Julia A. Bell, 2009. Family VIII. Staphylococcaceae fam. nov.. In: (Eds.) P.D. Vos, G. Garrity, D. Jones, N.R.
    Krieg, W. Ludwig, F.A. Rainey, K.-H. Schleifer, W.B. Whitman. Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Volume 3: The
    Firmicutes, Springer, 392-426.
Positive results for arginine dihydrolase, catalase, FDP-aldolse Class 1, galactosidase, glucuronidase, nitrates reduction,
Voges-Proskauer test, acid production from fructose.

Negative results for coagulas, clumping factor, DNase, FDP-aldolase Class 2, beta-glucosidase, oxidase, urease, acid production
from: arabinose, cellobiose, fucose, melezitose, raffinose, ribose, salicin, turanose, sucrose, xylitol & xylose.

Variable results for heat-stable nuclease, acid production from trehalose

Subspecies differential characters:
(c) Costin Stoica
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Alkaline phosphatase
Acid from galactose
Acid from lactose
Acid from mannitol
Acid from mannose
Subsp. carnosus
+
d
d
[+]
+
Subsp. utilis
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-
-
-
-