Staphylococcus carnosus
Taxonomy
Morphology
Cultural characteristics
Biochemical characters
Ecology
Pathogenicity
References
Phylum Firmicutes, Class Bacilli, Order Bacillales, Family Staphylococcaceae, Genus Staphylococcus, Staphylococcus carnosus  
Schleifer & Fischer 1982. Has been divided in 2 subspecies:
Staphylococcus carnosus subsp. carnosus  Schleifer & Fischer 1982
Staphylococcus carnosus subsp. utilis  Probst et al. 1998

Closely related to
Staphylococcus piscifermentans.
Gram positive cocci, 0.5 - 1.5 μm, non-motile, non-sporing, occuring singly or in pairs.
Colonies are gray-white, slightly raised, smooth, and slightly glistening. May produce
pigment during storage. Colony diameter reach1–3 mm. Nonhemolytic.
Facultatively anaerobic. Temperature range 15 – 45 ºC; optimum 30 – 40 ºC. Grow in
medium containing 15% NaCl. Grow on media: Trypticase Soy Agar ± 5% sheep
blood, Chapman (selective medium with 75 g/l de NaCl & mannitol).
Isolated from processed foods, mainly meat products (dry sausages, salami & hams), soy sauce, also from sauces containing fish
or shrimps. Natural habitat is unknown. Susceptible to Novobiocin.
Unknown pathogenicity (no case of infection due to Staphylococcus carnosus was described).
Do not produce coagulase, clumping factor, hyaluronidase, hemolysins or enterotoxins.
Contribute to the development of the meat products flavour an colour (due to reduction of nitrate to nitrite, production of  
phenylacetaldehyde, 2-methyl-l-butanol, dimethyldisulphide, dimethyltrisulphide, diacetyl, ethanol and ethyl esters and also unable to
produce histamine, cadaverine and putrescine).
  1. Holt J.G., Krieg N.R., Sneath P.H.A., Staley J.T., Wiliams S.T., 1994. Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, Ninth Edition,
    Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore. Group 17, Gram-Positive Cocci, 527-558.
  2. Schleifer K.H. & Fischer U.: Description of a new species of the genus Staphylococcus: Staphylococcus carnosus. Int. J. Syst.
    Bacteriol., 1982, 32, 153-156.
  3. Probst A.J., Hertel C., Richter L., Wassill L., Ludwig W. & Hammes W.P.: Staphylococcus condimenti sp. nov., from soy sauce
    mash, and Staphylococcus carnosus (Schleifer and Fischer 1982) subsp. utilis subsp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1998, 48, 651-
    658.
  4. Karl-Heinz Schleifer and Julia A. Bell, 2009. Family VIII. Staphylococcaceae fam. nov.. In: (Eds.) P.D. Vos, G. Garrity, D. Jones, N.R.
    Krieg, W. Ludwig, F.A. Rainey, K.-H. Schleifer, W.B. Whitman. Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Volume 3: The
    Firmicutes, Springer, 392-426.
Coagulase negative. See tables for differential characters.
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Hemolysis
Colony > 5mm
Pigment
Aerobic growth
Anaerobic growth
Nitrates reduction
Subsp. carnosus
-
+
-
+
+
+
Subsp. utilis
-
+
-
+
+
+
Lactose
Trehalose
Mannitol
Xylitol
Fructose
Raffinose
Sucrose
Xylose
Mannose
d
d
[+]
-
+
-
-
-
+
-
d
-
-
+
-
-
-
-
Urease
Growth on
10% NaCl
Growth on
15% NaCl
Growth at
15 ºC
Growth at
45 ºC
Oxidase
L-Lactic acid
production
D-Lactic acid
production
Acetoin
production
-
+
+
+
+
-
+
+
+
-
+
+
+
+
-
+
+
+
Arabinose
Cellobiose
Fucose
Salicin
Galactose
Melezitose
Turanose
Ribose
-
-
-
-
d
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Growth on
(NH
4)2SO4.
Coagulase
Clumping factor
Catalase
DNase
Heat-stable
nuclease
Beta-
glucosidase
x
-
-
+
-
d
-
x
-
-
+
-
d
-
Galactosidase
Novobiocin
resistance
Glucuronidase
Hyaluronidase
FDP-aldolase
Class 1
FDP-aldolase
Class 2
Arginine
dihydrolase
Alkaline
phosphatase
+
-
-
x
+
-
+
+
+
-
-
x
+
-
+
-