Pseudomonas viridiflava
Taxonomy
Morphology
Cultural characteristics
Biochemical characters
Ecology
Pathogenicity
References
Phylum Proteobacteria, Class Gammaproteobacteria, Order Pseudomonadales, Family Pseudomonadaceae, Genus Pseudomonas,
Pseudomonas viridiflava  
(Burkholder 1930) Dowson 1939.
Old synonym:
Phytomonas viridiflava  Burkholder 1930.
Closely related with
Pseudomonas syringae.
Gram negative rods, motile by 1 or 2 polar flagella.
Fluorescent pigment produced. May get yellowish in media with 5% sucrose and olive
to golden brown in media with yeast extract and glycerol. A blue-green insoluble
pigment is produced by some strains.On Beef-extract agar colonies are grayish white
with corrugated margins & irregular edges.
Obligately aerobic, optimum temperature 26 ºC (no growth at  41 ºC).
Can grow on Nutrient agar or nutrient broth, Nutrient yeast-dextrose agar, King's
medium B.
Isolated from soil & plants. First isolated from the dwarf or runner bean, in Switzerland.
Plant pathogen (Arabidopsis thaliana, Lycopersicum esculentum - tomato - leaf & fruit spot disease, Phaseolus vulgaris - bean,
peach, pumpkin, crucifers, and cowpea). Leaf spot and necrosis on melon in Turkey reported. Other plants may also be affected.
  1. Burkholder W.H.: The bacterial diseases of the bean. Memoirs, Cornell University Agricultural Experiment Station, 1930, 127, 1-88.
  2. Dowson W.J.: On the systematic position and generic names of the Gram negative bacterial plant pathogens. Zentralblatt fur
    Bakteriologie, Parasitenkunde, Infektionskrankheiten und Hygiene. Abteilung II, 1939, 100, 177-193.
  3. Y. Aysan, M. Mirik, A. Ala, F. Sahin & O. Cinar: First report of Pseudomonas viridiflava on melon in Turkey. Plant Pathology Volume
    52 Issue 6, Pages 800 - 800
  4. J. B. JONES, JOHN PAUL JONES, S. M. McCARTER & R. E. STALL : Pseudomonas viridiflava: Causal Agent of Bacterial Leaf
    Blight of Tomato. Plant Disease/April 1984 341
  5. Jakob, K., Goss, E.M., Araki, H., Van, T., Kreitman, M., and Bergelson, J. (2002). Pseudomonas viridiflava and P. syringae - Natural
    pathogens of Arabidopsis thaliana. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 15, 1195-1203.
  6. D.E. Goumas, N.E. Malathrakis and A.K. Chatzaki: Characterization of Pseudomonas viridiflava associated with a new symptom
    on tomato fruit. European Journal of Plant Pathology 105: 927–932, 1999.
Positive results for the utilization of: glucose, mucate, succinate, glycerol, L-aspartate,
L-glutamate, L-glutamine, gamma-aminobutyrate, D-mannose, D-galactose, caproate,
L-arginine, betaine, D-fructose, caprylate, pelargonate, lactate, mannitol, m-inositol, p-hydroxybenzoate, quinate, L-serine, L-proline,
fumarate, sucrose, glutarate, caprate, D-malate, glycerate, trigonelline, D(-)-tartrate, pyruvate, erythritol, sorbitol, D-alanine, L-histidine,
linolenate, triacetin, tripropionin, tricaproin, isoascorbate & L-asparagine.

Negative results for indole production, arginine dihydrolase, oxidase, denitrification, starch hydrolysis  and utilization of: raffinose,
L-leucine, L-tryptophan, ascorbate, D-arabinose, D-fucose, L-rhamnose, trehalose, maltose, cellobiose, lactose, melibiose,
methylglucoside, starch, inulin, 2-ketogluconate, salicin, N-acetylglucosamine, isobutyrate, isovalerate, linoleate, laurylsulfate,
tannate, oxalate, maleate, adipate, pimelate, suberate, azelate, sebacate, glycolate, thioglycolate, levulinate, citraconate, itaconate,
mesaconate, 3-phosphoglycerate, hydroxymethylbutyrate, adonitol,ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, 2,3-butyleneglycol, methanol,
ethanol, n-propanol, isopropanol, n-butanol, isobutanol, geraniol, mandelate, benzoylformate, benzoate, o-hydroxybenzoate,
m-hydroxybenzoate, phthalate, phenylacetate, phenylethanediol, eicosenedioate, naphthalene, phenol, testosterone, glycine,
beta-alanine, L-threonine, L-isoleucine, L-norleucine, L-valine, L-lysine, L-ornithine, L-citrulline, D-aminovalerate, L-phenylalanine,
L-hydroxyproline, D-tryptophan, indoleacetic acid, L-kynurenine, kynurenate, anthranilate, methylamine, ethanolamine, benzylamine,
spermine, histamine, tryptamine, butylamine, creatine, choline, hippurate, urate, pantothenate, acetamide, nicotinate, dodecane,
hexadecane, poly-b-hydroxybutyrate, pectate, chlorogenate, uridine, L-sorbose
Sucrose, lactose, maltose, raffinose, salicin, and salts of formic and tartaric acids not fermented.

Variable result for lecithinase production and utilization of D-ribose,  D-xylose, acetate, propionate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, L-arabinose,
gluconate, L-malate, citrate, aconitate, saccharate, valerate, malonate, m-tartrate, L(-)-tartrate, 2-ketoglutarate, hydroxymethylglutarate,
L-alanine, L-tyrosine, putrescine, lecithin.
(c) Costin Stoica
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