P. amygdali
P. avellanae
P. cannabina
P. ficuserectae
P. meliae
P. savastanoi
P. syringae
Fluorescent pigment
-
+
+
-
-
+
+
Oxidase
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Levan sucrase
ND
+
+
+
-
-
+
Gelatin hydrolysis
-
-
-
-
-
-
v
m-Inositol utilization
-
+
-
-
-
v
v
Pseudomonas syringae
Taxonomy
Morphology
Cultural characteristics
Biochemical characters
Ecology
Pathogenicity
References
Phylum Proteobacteria, Class Gammaproteobacteria, Order Pseudomonadales, Family Pseudomonadaceae, Genus Pseudomonas,
Pseudomonas syringae
 van Hall 1902.

Pseudomonas syringae subsp. savastanoi  (Smith 1908) Janse 1982
Pseudomonas syringae subsp. syringae  van Hall 1902.

Pseudomonas amygdali  Psallidas and Panagopoulos 1975 (Approved Lists 1980), Pseudomonas ficuserectae  Goto 1983,
Pseudomonas meliae  Ogimi 1981 &  Pseudomonas savastanoi  (Janse 1982) Gardan et al. 1992 are members of a single
genomospecies. Thus, these species should be considered synonymous and the correct name for this species should be
Pseudomonas amygdali. Because Pseudomonas amygdali, as delineated by DNA-DNA hybridization, could not be differentiated from
other genomospecies by phenotypic tests, the authors do not formally propose nomenclatural changes.

Pseudomonas syringae pv. tremae strains are now included in Pseudomonas tremae Gardan et al. 1999 species.

Old synonym:
Phytomonas syringae (van Hall) Bergey et al. 1930
Possible synonyms:
Pseudomonas aptata (Brown & Jamieson) Stevens 1925, Pseudomonas avenae Manns 1909, Pseudomonas
barkeri
(Berridge) Clara 1934, Pseudomonas cerasi Griffin 1911, Pseudomonas citrarefaciens (Lee) Stapp 1928, Pseudomonas
citriputealis
(Smith) Stapp 1928, Pseudomonas coronafaciens (Elliott) Stevens 1925, Pseudomonas delphinii (Smith) Stapp 1928,
Pseudomonas dysoxyli Hutchinson 1949, Pseudomonas fraxini (Brown) Skoric 1948, Pseudomonas garcae do Amaral, Teixeira &
Pinheiro 1956,
Pseudomonas glycinea Coerper 1919, Pseudomonas helianthi (Kawamura) Savulescu 1947, Pseudomonas hibisci
(Nakada & Takimoto) Stapp 1928,
Pseudomonas holci Kendrick 1926, Pseudomonas lachrymans (Smith & Bryan) Carsner 1918,
Pseudomonas matthiolae (Briosi & Pavarino) Dowson 1943, Pseudomonas medicaginis Sackett 1910, Pseudomonas mellea Johnson
1923,
Pseudomonas mori (Boyer & Lambert) Stevens 1913, Pseudomonas mors-prunorum Wormald 1931, Pseudomonas
nectarophila
(Doidge) Burkholder 1939, Pseudomonas panacis (Nakada & Takimoto) Dowson 1943, Pseudomonas papulans Rose
1917,
Pseudomonas prunicola Wormald 1930, Pseudomonas phaseolicola (Burkholder) Dowson 1943, Pseudomonas pisi Sackett
1916,
Pseudomonas punctulans (Brian) Savulescu 1947, Pseudomonas rimaefaciens Koning 1938, Pseudomonas savastanoi (Smith)
Stevens 1913,
Pseudomonas savastanoi var. fraxini (Brown) Dowson 1943, Pseudomonas sojae (Wolf) Stapp 1928, Pseudomonas
spongiosa
(Aderhold & Ruhland) Braun 1927, Pseudomonas tabaci (Wolf & Foster) Stevens 1925, Pseudomonas tomato (Okabe)
Alstatt 1944,
Pseudomonas tonelliana (Ferraris) Burkholder 1948, Pseudomonas trifoliorum (Jones, Williamson, Wolf & McCulloch)
Stapp 1928,
Pseudomonas utiformica Clara 1932, Pseudomonas vignae Gardner & Kendrick 1923, Pseudomonas viridifaciens Tisdale
& Williamson 1923,
Pseudomonas xanthochlora (Schuster) Stapp 1928.  
Gram negative, 0.7-1.2 / 1.5-3 µm, motile  rods with multitrichous flagelation.
Fluorescent pigment produced (mainly in iron-deficient media). In older cultures, the
cells may be of unusual shapes and sizes.
Strictly aerobic, optimal temperature 30 ºC, no growth at 41 ºC,  some strains can
grow at 4 ºC .Organic growth factors not required. Media: Mueller-Hinton agar, Nutrient
agar or nutrient broth.
Isolated from diseases of different plants (beans, soybean, citrus, cherries, apple, tobacco, tomato, ash, sunflower, ginseng,
blackberry, coffe bean plant etc.); first isolated from lilac (
Syringa vulgaris). Also isolated from healthy apple & pear fruits.
Pathogen for a large variety of plants (may be saprophytic on healthy apple, pear or
citrus, but grow well on wounded plant tissue). Includes more than 50 pathovars, most
of which specifically colonize different plant hosts:
aceris attacks maple (Acer spp.),
aptata attacks beets (Beta vulgaris),  atrofaciens & lapsa attacks wheat (Triticum
aestivum
), dysoxylis attacks Dysoxylum spectabile, japonica attacks barley
(
Hordeum vulgare), panici attacks grass (Panicum spp.), papulans attacks crabapple
(
Malus sylvestris), pisi attacks peas (Pisum sativum), syringae attacks Syringa and
Phaseolus species, maculicola & alisalensis affects crucifers & may cause bacterial
blight of broccoli raab (
Brassica rapa), phaseolicola produce water-soaked lesions
on bean pods,
cerasicola produces bacterial gall on trunks and twigs of cherry trees.
Pseudomonas syringae subsp. savastanoi contains 3 host-specific pathovars: fraxini
which causes ash canker,
nerii which attacks oleander and oleae which causes olive
knot (
Olea europea).
Several pathovars of
P. syringae produce phytotoxins.
Some strains can produce an "ice nucleation-active" protein (found on the outer
bacterial cell wall)  that acts as the nucleating centers for ice crystals, the plants
becoming very vulnerable to frost damage at temperatures below  -1.8 ºC.
  1. Van Hall (C.J.J.): Bijdragen tot de kennis der Bakterieele Plantenziekten. Inaugural Dissertation Amsterdam, 1902, pp. 198.
  2. Janse J.D.: Pseudomonas syringae subsp. savastanoi (ex Smith) subsp. nov., nom. rev., the bacterium causing excrescences on
    Oleaceae and Nerium oleander L. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1982, 32, 166-169.
  3. Maki LR, Galyan EL, Chang-Chien MM, Caldwell DR (1974). "Ice nucleation induced by Pseudomonas syringae". Applied
    Microbiology 28 (3): 456–459.
  4. Wojciech Janisiewicz, USDA, Appalachian Fruit Research Station, Kearneysville, WV: Pseudomonas syringae (saprophytic strain)
    and "Fruit Yeasts".
  5. N A. Cintas, S T. Koike, R A. Bunch, and C T. Bull, "Holdover inoculum of Pseudomonas syringae pv. alisalensis from broccoli raab
    causes disease in subsequent plantings" (2006). Plant Disease. 90 (8), pp. 1077-1084.
  6. Hasan Murat Aksoy: Occurrence of Pseudomonas syringae pv. lachrymans [(Smith and Bryan) Young,Dye and Wilkie] at Bafra
    Province Greenhouses. Plant Pathology Journal 5 (1): 80-82, 2006.
  7. F. L. Lukezic, 1979. Pseudomonas corrugata, a pathogen of tomato, isolated from symptomless alfalfa roots. Phytopathology 69:
    27-31.
Can utilize glucose, mucate, succinate, glycerol, L-aspartate, L-glutamate, L-glutamine,
aminobutyrate, fumarate,  caprate & L-alanine.

Oxidase, ADH, starch hydrolysis negative, nitrates not reduced.
Cannot use trehalose, 2-ketogluconate, beta-alanine, L-isoleucine, L-valine, D(-)-tartrate & L-leucine.

Variable results for gelatin hydrolysis, lecithinase, utilization of: raffinose, sucrose, glutarate, D-malate, glycerate, trigonelline,
D-ribose, D-xylose, acetate, propionate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, L-arabinose, gluconate, L-malate, citrate, aconitate, D-mannose,
D-galactose, caproate, L-arginine, betaine, D-fructose, caprylate, pelargonate, lactate, mannitol, m-inositol, p-hydroxybenzoate,
quinate, L-serine, L-proline, saccharate, valerate, malonate, m-tartrate, L(-)-tartrate, alpha-ketoglutarate, hydroxymethylglutarate,
erythritol, sorbitol, D-alanine, L-histidine, L-tyrosine, L-tryptophan, putrescine, sarcosine, laurate, L-sorbose, melezitose, amygdalin,
dextrin, formate, dulcitol, isophthalate, L-methionine, m-aminobenzoate, p-aminobenzoate, methylamine, linolenate, triacetin,
tipropionin, tricaproin, ascorbate, isoascorbate, lecithin, ethanol & L-asparagine.
Antagonistic potential against fungi that cause postharvest decay of the fruits  (blue mold caused by P. expansum, gray mold caused
by
B. cinerea, Mucor rot caused by Mucor spp. on apple & pear, blue mold caused by Penicillium italicum, and green mold caused by
P. digitatum on citrus fruit).
(c) Costin Stoica
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