P. stutzeri colonies on Sheep Blood Agar
P. stutzeri Gram-stained cells
Pseudomonas stutzeri
Cultural characteristics
Biochemical characters
Phylum Proteobacteria, Class Gammaproteobacteria, Order Pseudomonadales, Family Pseudomonadaceae, Genus Pseudomonas,
Pseudomonas stutzeri
 (Lehmann and Neumann 1896) Sijderius 1946.
Old synonyms:
Bacillus denitrificans II Burri and Stutzer 1895, Bacterium stutzeri  Lehmann and Neumann 1896, Bacillus nitrogenes  
Migula 1900,
Bacillus stutzeri  Chester 1901, Achromobacter sewerinii  Bergey et al. 1923, Achromobacter stutzeri Bergey et al. 1930,
Pseudomonas stanieri  Mandel 1966.

Pseudomonas balearica Bennasar et al. 1996 accomodates the Pseudomonas stutzeri genomovar 6.
Pseudomonas perfectomarina (ZoBell & Upham 1944) Baumann et al. 1983 accomodates the P. stutzeri genomovar 2.
Pseudomonas chloritidismutans Wolterink et al. 2002 is a later heterotypic synonym (Cladera et al. 2006).
Gram-negative, motile rods with monotrichous flagelation. Lateral flagella of short
wavelength may be produced on solid media.
Adherent, wrinkled colonies. Some strains can produce a reddish-brown,
nonfluorescent pigment.Colony variation (becoming smooth, butyrous & pale) after
repeated passages. No hemolysis on Sheep Blood Agar (admin note).
Strictly aerobic except in media with nitrate, optimal temperature 35 ºC, many strains
grow at 41 ºC, do not grow at 4 ºC or 43 ºC. Organic growth factors not required.
Grow on Nutrient agar or nutrient broth, Mueller-Hinton agar.
Isolated from soil, water (fresh, marine, sediments) and clinical samples (human
spinal fluid, chicken yolk sac). Denitrifying and nitrogen-fixing bacteria.
Rare opportunistic pathogen. P. stutzeri is frequently isolated from clinical materials but rarely causes disease. In the few cases in
which it was the cause of infections, the patients often had another serious underlying disease.
Isolated from the yolk sac of SPF dead chicken (admin note).
  1. Bennasar A., Rossello-Mora R., Lalucat J. & Moore E.R.B.: 16 rRNA gene sequence analysis relative to genomovars of
    Pseudomonas stutzeri and proposal of Pseudomonas balearica sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1996, 46, 200-205.
  2. Rossello-Mora R.A., Garcia-Valdes E. & Lalulcat J.: Taxonomic relationship between Pseudomonas perfectomarina ZoBell and
    Pseudomonas stutzeri. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1993, 43, 852-854.
  3. Wolterink A.F.W.M., Jonker A.B., Kengen S.W.M. & Stams A.J.M.: Pseudomonas chloritidismutans sp. nov., a non-denitrifying,
    chlorate-reducing bacterium. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2002, 52, 2183-2190.
  4. Cladera A.M., Garcia-Valdes E. & Lalucat J.: Genotype versus phenotype in the circumscription of bacterial species: the case of
    Pseudomonas stutzeri and Pseudomonas chloritidismutans. Arch. Microbiol., 2006, 184, 353-361.
  5. Wolterink A.F.W.M., Jonker A.B., Kengen S.W.M. & Stams A.J.M.: Pseudomonas chloritidismutans sp. nov., a non-denitrifying,
    chlorate-reducing bacterium. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2002, 52, 2183-2190.
  6. George M. Garrity, Julia A. Bell, Timothy Lilburn: Order IX Pseudomonadales Orla-Jensen 1921 In: Bergey's Manual of Systematic
    Bacteriology, Second edition,Vol two, part B, George M. Garrity (Editor-in-Chief), pp. 323-442.6.
  7. Sijderius, R. "Heterotrophe bacterien, die thiosulfaat oxydeeren." Thesis, University Amsterdam, 1946, pp. 1-146.
  8. Jorge Lalucat, Antoni Bennasar, Rafael Bosch, Elena García-Valdés & Norberto J. Palleroni:  Biology of Pseudomonas stutzeri.
    Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews, June 2006, p. 510-547, Vol. 70, No. 2
Oxidase positive, nitrates reduced (reaction may be delayed under semianaerobic
conditions), rapid starch hydrolysis.
Can utilize as carbon source: citrate, glucose, maltose, arginine, L-arabinose (slow),
fructose, galactose, acetate, L- and D-alanine, caprate, caprylate, fumarate,
L-glutamate, alpha-ketoglutarate, itaconate, L-leucine, lactate, L-malate, mesaconate,
L-proline, succinate, azelate, sebacate, starch & glycerol.

Does not hydrolyze gelatin or arginine. Egg-yolk reaction is negative.
Cannot utilize 2-ketogluconate, cellobiose, isobutyrate, citraconate, creatine, sorbitol,
dodecanelactose, trehalose, DL-arginine, beta-alanin, m-inositol, D-mannose,
D-ribose, sucrose, levulinate, L-lysine, DL-norleucine, L-ornithine, D- and L-tartrate,
m-tartrate,  trigonelline,  D-xylose, erythritol, hexadecane, hippurate, L-histidine,  
o-hydroxybenzoate, m-hydroxybenzoate, isopropanol, kynurenate, lactose, maleate,
mandelate, D- and L-mandelate, naphthalene, nicotinate, oxalate, panthothenate,
phenol, phenyl-acetate, phenyl-ethanediol, phthalate, pimelate, L-rhamnose, salicin,
suberate, testosterone & L-threonine.

Variable results for adipate, aconitate, caproate, heptanoate, L-tyrosine, valerate,
gluconate, glutarate, L-serine, L-aspartate, L-isoleucine, malonate, L-valine, glycine,
D-malate, butanol, propanol, putrescine, pelargonate, propionate, spermine &

Can degrade carbon tetrachloride.
Can oxidize thiosulfate to tetrathionate both aerobically and anaerobically.
(c) Costin Stoica
Culture media
Biochemical tests
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