Ralstonia solanacearum
Taxonomy
Morphology
Cultural characteristics
Biochemical characters
Ecology
Pathogenicity
References
Phylum Proteobacteria, Class Betaproteobacteria, Order Burkholderiales, Family Burkholderiaceae, Genus Ralstonia,
Ralstonia solanacearum  Yabuuchi et al. 1996.
Historical synonyms:
Pseudomonas solanacearum  Smith 1914 (Bacillus solanacearum Smith 1896), Burkholderia solanacearum  
Yabuuchi et al. 1993.

Classified into 5 biovars based on the ability to use disaccharides and oxidize hexoze alcohols producing acid when positive.
Classified into races based on host range.
Gram negative, 0.5-0.7 by 1.5-2.5 μm, motile  rods (1 to 4 flagella). Accumulates poly-
beta-hydroxybutyrate.
S-type or R-type colonies. Some strains can produce a diffusible, nonfluorescent
brown pigment. Strictly aerobic. Optimal temperature 30 ºC, does not grow at 41 ºC.
Does not require any growth factors, including sodium chloride. Grows on media:
TZC agar (Kelman), TTC (triphenyl tetrazolium chloride) medium, SMSA-E (soil
isolation medium).
Isolated from soil (many types of soil with various pH values), water, plants (roots).
Plant pathogen (bacterial wilt) - tobacco (Granville wilt), tomato, potato (brown rot), eggplant, pepper, banana trees (Moko disease),
geranium (Southern wilt) and many others. Pathogenicity may be lost in laboratory conditions  (correlated with colony variation).
  1. Whitmore A.: An account of a glanders-like disease occurring in Rangoon. Journal of Hygiene, 1913, 13, 1-34.
  2. Smith E.F.: A bacterial disease of the tomato, eggplant and Irish potato (Bacillus solanacearum n. sp.). Bulletin, Division of
    Vegetable Physiology and Pathology, United States Department of Agriculture, 1896, 12, 1-28.
  3. Smith E.F.: Bacteria in relation to plant diseases. Carnegie Institute, Washington, 1914, 3, 1-309.
  4. Yabuuchi E., Kosako Y., Oyaizu H., Yano I., Hotta H., Hashimoto Y., Ezaki T. & Arakawa M.: Proposal of Burkholderia gen. nov. and
    transfer of seven species of the genus Pseudomonas homology group II to the new genus, with the type species Burkholderia
    cepacia (Palleroni and Holmes 1981) comb. nov. Microbiol. Immunol., 1992, 36, 1251-1275.
  5. Yabuuchi E., Kosako Y., Yano I., Hotta H., & Nishiuchi Y.: Transfer of two Burkholderia and an Alcaligenes species to Ralstonia
    gen. nov.: proposal of Ralstonia pickettii (Ralston, Palleroni and Doudoroff 1973) comb. nov., Ralstonia solanacearum (Smith
    1896) comb. nov. and Ralstonia eutropha (Davis 1969) comb. nov. Microbiol. Immunol., 1995, 39, 897-904.
  6. Tim Momol, Prakash Pradhanang, and Carlos A. Lopes: Bacterial Wilt of Pepper. Plant Pathology Department, Florida Cooperative
    Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, 2001.
  7. French E. B., Gutarra L., Aley P. & Elphinstone J.: Culture media for Ralstonia solanacearum. Isolation,  identification and
    maintenance. Fitopatologia vol 30 (3), 1995,  126-130.
  8. Teizi Urakami, Chieko Ito-Yoshida, Hisaya Araki, Toshio Kijima, Ken-Ichiro Suzuki, and Kazuo Komagata: Transfer of
    Pseudomonas plantarii and Pseudomonas glumae to Burkholderia as Burkholderia spp. and Description of Burkholderia vandii
    sp. nov. Int J Syst Bacteriol April 1994 44:235-245.
  9. Eiko Yabuuchi, Yoshiaki Kawamura and Takayuki Ezaki: Genus VII. Ralstonia Yabuuchi, Kosako, Yano, Hotta and Nishiuchi 1996,
    625VP In: Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Second edition,Vol two, part C, George M. Garrity (Editor-in-Chief), pp. 609-
    620.
Positive results for alkaline reaction in OF base medium, catalase, p-nitro-beta-D-galactopyranoside, oxidase & urease. Most strains
produce nitrite from nitrate, except those of biovar 2.
Can utilize as carbon source: glucose, D-fructose, sucrose, DL-lactate, sodium citrate, cis-aconitic acid, alaninamide, malate, D- and
L-alanine, gamma-aminobutyric acid, D-glucuronic acid, bromosuccinic acid, citric acid, D-galacturonic acid, glycerol, glycogen,
L-histidine, urocanic acid, alpha-hydroxybutyric acid, p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, alpha-ketobutyric acid, L-leucine, alpha-ketoglutaric
acid, alpha-ketovaleric acid, monomethylsuccinate, propionic acid, D-psicose, L-serine, L-threonine, Tween 40, Tween 80, acetic
acid, L-asparagine, L-aspartic acid, L-glutamic acid, beta-hydroxybutyric acid, DL-lactic acid, methylpyruvate, L-proline, L-pyroglutamic
acid & succinic acid.

Does not hydrolyze esculin, starch or gelatin. H
2S and indole production are negative.
Does not utilize potassium gluconate, n-caprate, adipate, L-arabinose, D-mannose, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, L-alanyl-glycine,
glucuronamide, formic acid, D-galactonic acid lactone, D-galactose, D-gluconic acid, glycyl-L-glutamic acid, gamma-hydroxybutyric
acid, itaconic acid, malonic acid, L-phenylalanine, succinamic acid, phenylethylamine, quinic acid, D-saccharic acid, sebacic acid,
D-serine, N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, alpha-cyclodextrin, i-erythritol, glycyl-L-aspartic acid, inosine, D-raffinose, uridine,
alpha-D-lactose, lactulose, D-melibiose, beta-methyl-D-glucoside, L-rhamnose, turanose, xylitol, adonitol, 2-aminoethanol,
D-arabitol, 2,3-butanediol, DL-carnitine, dextrin, L-fucose, gentiobiose, glucose-1-phosphate, glucose-6-phosphate, D-glucosaminic
acid, DL-alpha-glycerol phosphate, hydroxy-L-proline, m-inositol, L-ornithine, putrescine, sucrose, D-trehalose & thymidine.
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Cellobiose
utilization
Lactose
utilization
Maltose
utilization
Dulcitol
utilization
Mannitol
utilization
Sorbitol
utilization
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Biovar 3
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Biovar 4
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Biovar 5
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