Pseudomonas putida
Cultural characteristics
Biochemical characters
Phylum Proteobacteria, Class Gammaproteobacteria, Order Pseudomonadales, Family Pseudomonadaceae, Genus Pseudomonas,
Pseudomonas putida
(Trevisan 1889) Migula 1895. Two biovars were described: A and B.

Old synonyms:
Bacillus fluorescens putidus  Flugge 1886, Bacillus putidus  Trevisan 1889, Pseudomonas eisenbergi  Migula 1900,
Pseudomonas convex  Chester 1901, Pseudomonas incognita  Chester 1901, Pseudomonas ovalis  Chester 1901, Pseudomonas
 (Wright 1895) Chester 1901, Pseudomonas striata  Chester 1901.

Subjective synonym:
Arthrobacter siderocapsulatus. According to Chun et al. 2001, Arthrobacter siderocapsulatus Dubinina and
Zhdanov 1975 is a later heterotypic synonym of
Pseudomonas putida.
Gram negative, 0.7-1.1 / 2-4 μm, motile  rods with polar multitrichous flagella. Some
strains may have oval shape.
Cultures produce diffusible yellow to brown, green fluorescent pigment. Strictly
aerobic (except in media with nitrate), optimal temperature 25-30 ºC. No growth at 41
ºC. Some strains grow at 4 ºC. Organic growth factors not required. No growth in
media with 8.5% NaCl. Grow on media: Trypticase Soy Agar  ± 5% sheep blood,
Trypticase Soy Broth, Mueller-Hinton agar. Levan is not produced.
Isolated from soil, water & clinical samples (rarely).
Saprophytic or opportunistic pathogen.
Septicemia and septic arthritis in immunocompromised patients were reported.
  1. Chun J., Rhee M.S., Han J.I. & Bae K.S.: Arthrobacter siderocapsulatus Dubinina and Zhdanov 1975AL is a later subjective
    synonym of Pseudomonas putida (Trevisan 1889) Migula 1895AL. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2001, 51, 169-170.
  2. Elomari M., Coroloer L., Verhille S., Izard D. & Leclerc H.: Pseudomonas monteilii sp. nov., isolated from clinical specimens. Int. J.
    Syst. Bacteriol., 1997, 47, 846-852.
  3. George M. Garrity, Julia A. Bell & Timothy Lilburn: Order IX Pseudomonadales Orla-Jensen 1921 In: Bergey’s Manual of
    Systematic Bacteriology, Second edition,Vol two, part B, George M. Garrity (Editor-in-Chief), 2005, pp. 323-442.
  4. Sarah E. Burr, Stefanie Gobeli, Peter Kuhnert, Elinor Goldschmidt-Clermont, and Joachim Frey: Pseudomonas chlororaphis
    subsp. piscium subsp. nov., isolated from freshwater fish. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol December 2010 60:2753-2757.
Can use more than 80 different carbon sources. Can degrade aromatic compounds like benzene, toluene, ethylbenzenes,
nitrotoluenes, chlorobenzenes, chlorophenols etc.

Positive results for arginine dihydrolase, catalase & oxidase.
Can utilize 2-ketogluconate (biovar A is variable), acetate, L-alanine, gamma-aminobutyrate, L-asparagine, L-aspartate, betaine,
caprate, caprylate, citrate, fumarate, L-glutamate, glutarate, glycerol, heptanoate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, DL-lactate, L-malate,
pelargonate, L-proline, putrescine, pyruvate, succinate, cis-aconitate, beta-alanine, L-arginine, spermine, L-tyrosine, D-alanine,
L-arabinose (biovar A is variable), benzoate (biovar A is variable), benzylamine (biovar A is variable), butanol, butylamine, butyrate,
caproate, D-fructose, D-glucose, gluconate, glycerate (biovar A is variable), p-hydroxybenzoate, glycine (biovar A is variable), histamine
(biovar A is variable), L-histidine, L-isoleucine, L-valine, isovalerate, alpha-ketoglutarate, L-leucine, L-lysine (biovar A is variable),
malonate (biovar A is variable), mucate (biovar A is variable), nicotinate (biovar A is variable), L-ornithine, phenylacetate (biovar A is
variable), L-phenylalanine, propionate, quinate, saccharate, sarcosine, trigonelline (biovar A is variable), tryptamine (biovar A is
variable) & valerate.

Negative results for egg-yolk reaction, nitrates reduction (positive in other studies), gelatin hydrolysis, indole production, urease, beta
galactosidase, beta-glucosidase & starch hydrolysis.
Cannot utilize trehalose, meso-inositol, geraniol, ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, adipate (biovar B is variable), adonitol, azelate,
cellobiose, ethylene glycole, D-fucose, inulin, isopropanole, lactose, maleate, maltose, methanole, oxalate, phtalate,
poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate, salicin, starch, L-threonine, citraconate (biovar B is variable), dodecane, hexadecane, erythritol, D-galactose
(biovar B is variable), glycolate (biovar A is variable), hydroxymethylglutarate, itaconate (biovar A is variable), mesaconate (biovar A is
variable), mannitol, D-mannose, naphthalene (biovar B is variable), DL-norleucine, pantothenate, pimelate, suberate, L-rhamnose,
sebacate (biovar B is variable), sorbitol (biovar B is variable), sucrose (biovar B is variable) & trehalose.

Variable results for utilization of: maltose, xylose, gamma-aminobutyrate, acetamide, benzoylformate, 2,3-butylene glycol, L-citrulline,
creatine, ethanol, propanol, ethanolamine, hippurate, o-hydroxybenzoate, m-hydroxybenzoate, isobutanol, isobutyrate, levulinate,
D-malate, mandelate, phenol, D-ribose, L-serine, tartrate & D-xylose.

P. putida strains are included in biovar A. Biovar B differs from biovar A only in
few phenotypic properties: can utilize as carbon source testosterone, L-tryptophan,
kynurenine, anthranilate, D-galactose, but not nicotinate.

P. monteilii is almost similar to P. putida but can be differentiated by
assimilation of inositol, tartrate, tryptamine, D-mandelate, acetamide, D-xylose,
mannitol & mucate.
(c) Costin Stoica
Culture media
Biochemical tests
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