Pseudomonas fluorescens
Taxonomy
Morphology
Cultural characteristics
Biochemical characters
Ecology
Pathogenicity
References
Phylum Proteobacteria, Class Gammaproteobacteria, Order Pseudomonadales, Family Pseudomonadaceae, Genus Pseudomonas,
Pseudomonas fluorescens
Migula 1895.
Synonyms:
Bacillus fluorescens liquefaciens Flügge 1886; Bacillus fluorescens Trevisan 1889; Bacterium fluorescens Lehmann and
Neumann 1896;
Liquidomonas fluorescens Orla-Jensen 1909.
P. fluorescens biotypes according to Stanier et al. (1966):
Biotype A (I) - typical
P. fluorescens *
Biotype B (II) -
P. marginalis**, P. tolaasii
Biotype C (III)
Biotype D -
P. chlororaphis
Biotype E  - P. aureofaciens
Biotype F (IV) - P. lemmonieri
Biotype G - miscelanous strains (P. geniculata - incertae sedis)

*Closely related to biotype A are
P. salomonii & P. palleroniana.
**
Strains of P. marginalis species have been included in biovar II of P. fluorescens.
Young et al. (1978) divided into three pathovars:
P. marginalis pv. marginalis, P.
marginalis pv. alfalfa Shinde and Lukezic 1974b,
associated with discolored alfalfa &
P. marginalis pv. pastinacae, pathogen of cultivated parsnip (Pastinaca sativa).
Gram negative, 0.7-0.8 x 2.3-2.8 μm, motile by polar flagella, rods.
Cultures produce diffusible fluorescent pigments, particularly in iron-deficient media. Blue, nondiffusible is pigment produced by
some strains.
Strictly aerobic except from strains capable of denitrification (biotypes II, III & IV), optimal temperature 28-30 ºC. Growth at 4 ºC; no
growth at 41 ºC. Members of the biotypes I & II are capable to adapt and survive at human body temperature (6).
Organic growth factors not required. Media: Nutritive agar, Trypticase Soy Agar, Mac Conkey agar, King’s medium B agar.
Isolated from oil, water, rarely from clinical samples (animal & human).
P. marginalis & P. salomonii were isolated from plants (lettuce, garlic, onion, rice).
P. fluorescens  is usually non-pathogenic but has been associated with food spoilage. One report of human bacteremia.
Saprophytic or opportunistic animal pathogen. Possible fin rot in fish.
Used in depollution activities.
Some activity in inhibition of plant pathogens.
P. marginalis can cause soft rots of plant tissues (onion).
P. salomonii is pathogenic for garlic (Allium sativum)
  1. Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed., 1994.
  2. Migula W.: Bacteriaceae (Stabchenbacterien). In: A. ENGLER and K. PRANTL (eds): Die Naturlichen Pfanzenfamilien, W.
    Engelmann, Leipzig, Teil I, Abteilung Ia, 1895, pp. 20-30.
  3. Yong-Ki Kim, Seung-Don Lee, Chung-Sik Choi, Sang-Bum Lee and Sang-Yeob Lee: Soft Rot of Onion Bulbs Caused by
    Pseudomonas marginalis Under Low Temperature Storage. Plant Pathol. J. 18(4) : 199-203 (2002).
  4. Louis Gardan, Patrizia Bella, Jean-Marie Meyer, Richard Christen, Philippe Rott, Wafa Achouak and Regine Samson:  
    Pseudomonas salomonii sp. nov., pathogenic on garlic, and Pseudomonas palleroniana sp. nov., isolated from rice. International
    Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology (2002), 52, 2065–2074.
  5. George M. Garrity, Julia A. Bell & Timothy Lilburn: Order IX Pseudomonadales Orla-Jensen 1921 In:  Bergey’s Manual of
    Systematic Bacteriology, Second edition,Vol two, part B, George M. Garrity (Editor-in-Chief), 2005,  pp. 323-442.
  6. A. Chapalain, G. Rossignol, O. Lesouhaitier, A. Merieau, C. Gruffaz, J. Guerillon, J.-M. Meyer, N. Orange, and M.G.J. Feuilloley.
    Comparative study of 7 fluorescent pseudomonad clinical isolates. Can. J. Microbiol. 54(1): 19–27 (2008).
All biovars are positive for the utilization of acetate, L-alanine, aminobutyrate, L-asparagine, L-aspartate, betaine, caprate, caprylate,
citrate, fumarate, L-glutamate, glutarate, glycerol, heptanoate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, DL-lactate, L-malate, pelargonatee, L-proline,
putrescine, pyruvate, succinate L-valine, beta-alanine.
All biovars are negative for the utilization of acetamide, mandelate, naphthalene, testosterone, D-tryptophan, cellobiose, ethylene
glycole, D-fucose, inulin, isopropanole, lactose, maleate, maltose, methanole, oxalate, phthalate, poly-b-hydroxybutyrate, salicin,
starch, L-threonine.

P. salomonii can be differentiated from P. palleroniana by positive sucrose & L-arabinose tests.
(c) Costin Stoica
Antibiogram
Encyclopedia
Culture media
Biochemical tests
Stainings
Images
Movies
Articles
Identification
Software
R E G N U M
PROKARYOTAE
Previous page
Back
 
Fluorescent
diffusible pigment
Nonfluorescent
diffusible pigment
Nonfluorescent
nondiffusible pigment
Poli-beta-
hydroxybutyrate
Growth at
41ºC
Pseudomonas fluorescens biovar 1 /
P. salomonii / P. palleroniana
+
-
-
-
-
Pseudomonas fluorescens biovar 2 /
P. marginalis / P.tolaasii
+
-
-
-
-
Pseudomonas fluorescens biovar 3
+
-
-
-
-
Pseudomonas fluorescens biovar 4
+
-
+
-
-
Pseudomonas fluorescens biovar 5
+
-
-
-
-
Arginine
dihydrolase
Gelatin
hydrolysis
Starch
hydrolysis
Glucose
utilization
Trehalose
utilization
meso-Inositol
utilization
Lecithinase
Denitrification
+
+
-
+
+
+
+
-
+
+
-
+
+
+
-
+
+
+
-
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
-
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
-
+
+
+
d
-