Ascorbate, 2-ketogluconate, sorbitol, adonitol, nicotinate, D-arabinose, D-fucose, L-rhamnose, trehalose, maltose, cellobiose,
lactose, melibiose, methylglucoside, starch, inulin, 2-ketogluconateg, salicing, N-acetylglucosamine, isobutyrate, isovalerate,
linoleate, laurylsulfateg, tannateg, oxalate, maleate, adipate, pimelate, suberate, azelate, sebacate, glycolate, thioglycolate, levulinate,
citraconate, itaconate, mesaconate, 3-phosphoglycerate, hydroxymethylbutyrate, adonitol,ethylene glycol, propylene glycol,
2,3-butyleneglycol, methanol, ethanol, n-propanol, isopropanol, n-butanol, isobutanol, geraniol, D-mandelate, L-mandelateg,
benzoylformate, benzoate, o-hydroxybenzoate, m-hydroxybenzoate, phthalate, phenylacetate, phenylethanediol, eicosenedioate,
naphthalene, phenol, testosterone, glycine, beta-alanine, L-threonine, L-isoleucine, L-norleucine, L-valine, L-lysine, L-ornithine,
L-citrulline, alpha-aminobutyrate, D-aminovalerate, L-phenylalanine, L-hydroxyproline, D-tryptophan, indoleacetic acid, L-kynurenine,
kynurenate, anthranilate, methylamine, ethanolamine, benzylamine, spermine, histamine, tryptamine, butylamine, alpha-amylamine,
creatine, choline, hippurate, urate, pantothenate, acetamide, nicotinate, dodecane, hexadecane, poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate, pectate,
chlorogenate & uridine are not utilized.
Pseudomonas cichorii
Cultural characteristics
Biochemical characters
Phylum Proteobacteria, Class Gammaproteobacteria, Order Pseudomonadales, Family Pseudomonadaceae, Genus Pseudomonas,  
Pseudomonas cichorii
Stapp 1928 (Phytomonas cichorii Swingle 1925; Bacterium cichorii Elliott 1930; Pseudomonas endiviae Kotte
Bacterium formosanum Okabe 1935: Chlorobacter cichorii Patel and Kulkarni 1951, probable synonym: Pseudomonas papaveris
Lelliott and Wallace 1955).
Gram-negative rods, 0.7-0.8 x 0.2-3.6 μm, motile with polar multitrichous flagella.
Colony morphology: circular, convex, smooth, glossy, translucent. Produces
fluorescent diffusible pigment, particularly in iron-deficient media. No
t lipolytic. No
slime produced on sucrose media.
Obligately aerobic, optimal growth temperature
30-35 ºC. No growth at 41 ºC.
Organic growth factors
are not required. Growth slow in mineral media with single
carbon sources and relatively slow in complex media.
Grows on: Trypticase Soy Agar,
Nutrient agar, LB medium, King’s medium B.
Isolated from Cichorium intybus and Cichorium endivia.
Pathogen to plants – leaf spotting and blighting in Cichorium spp., Lactuca sativa, Chrysanthemum morifolium (also, few reports for  
Plecthrantus australis, Hedera helix, Curcuma longa, Ocimum basilicum L., Brassaia actinophylla, Dizygotheca elegantissima,
Gerbera jamesonii, Polyscias fruticosai
  1. Swingle D.B.: Center rot of "french endive" or wilt of chicory (Cichorium intybos L.). Phytopathology, 1925, 15, 730 (Abstr.).
  2. Stapp C.: Schizomycetes (Spaltpilze oder Bakterien). In: SORAUER (ed.), Handbuch der Pflanzenkrankheiten, 5th ed., Vol. 2, Paul
    Parey, Berlin, 1928, pp. 1-295.
  3. A. R. Chase: Bacterial Leaf Blight Incited by Pseudomonas cichorii in Schefflera arboricola and Some Related Plants. The
    American Phytopathological Society. DOI: 10.1094/PD-68-73,1984.
  4. George M. Garrity, Julia A. Bell & Timothy Lilburn: Order IX Pseudomonadales Orla-Jensen 1921 In: Bergey’s Manual of
    Systematic Bacteriology, Second edition,Vol two, part B, George M. Garrity (Editor-in-Chief), 2005, pp. 323-442.
Can utilize glucose, mucate, succinate, glycerol, L-aspartate, L-glutamate, L-glutamine,
gamma-aminobutyrate, D-ribose, D-xylose, acetate, propionate, beta-hydroxybutyrate,
L-arabinose, gluconate, L-malate, citrate, aconitate, D-mannose, D-galactose, caproate, L-arginine, betaine, D-fructose, caprylate,
pelargonate, lactate, mannitol, meso-inositol, phydroxybenzoate, quinate, L-serine, L-proline, sucrose & meso-tartrate are utilized.

Nitric acid reduction: negative. Indole production: positive. Glucose acidification: negative. Arginine dehydrolase: negative. Urease:
negative. Esculin hydrolysis (beta-glucosidase): negative. Gelatin hydrolysis (protease): negative. Beta-galactosidase: negative.
2-ketogluconate not produced from glucose and not utilized as carbon source.
(c) Costin Stoica
Culture media
Biochemical tests
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