P. chlororaphis subsp.
chlororaphis
P. chlororaphis subsp.
aureofaciens
P. chlororaphis subsp.
aurantiaca
P. chlororaphis
subsp. piscium
Green pigment (chlororaphin)
+
-
+
+
Orange pigment
(phenazine-1-carboxylate)
+
-
+
-
Denitrification
+
v
-
+
5-ketogluconate assimilation
+
+
-
+
3-hydroxybenzoate assimilation
-
-
-
+
Arabinose assimilation
-
+
+
-
Negative for urease, beta-galactosidase, indole production, starch and aesculin hydrolysis, utilization of L-xylose, sorbose,
amygdalin, arbutin, salicin, melibiose, melezitose, starch, glycogen, gentiobiose, turanose, lyxose, tagatose, L-fucose, L-arabitol,
xylitol, dulcitol, methyl alpha-D-glucoside, methyl alpha-D-mannoside and methyl beta-D-xyloside.

Differences among the subspecies of
P. chlororaphis:
Pseudomonas chlororaphis
Taxonomy
Morphology
Cultural characteristics
Biochemical characters
Ecology
Pathogenicity
References
Phylum Proteobacteria, Class Gammaproteobacteria, Order Pseudomonadales, Family Pseudomonadaceae, Genus Pseudomonas,
Pseudomonas chlororaphis
Bergey et al. 1930 (synonyms : Bacillus chlororaphis Guignard and Sauvageau 1894; Pseudomonas
aureofaciens
Kluyver 1956; Pseudomonas aurantiaca Nakhimovskaya 1948).

Pseudomonas chlororaphis subsp. aurantiaca (Nakhimovskaya 1948) Peix et al. 2007
Pseudomonas chlororaphis subsp. aureofaciens (Kluyver 1956) Peix et al. 2007
Pseudomonas chlororaphis subsp. chlororaphis (Guignard and Sauvageau 1894) Bergey et al. 1930
Pseudomonas chlororaphis subsp. piscium  Burr et al. 2010
Gram-negative rods, 0.7-0.8 x 1.5-3.6 μm, motile with polar multitrichous flagella.
Obligately aerobic (except in media containing nitrate), optimal growth temperature
30-35 ºC, grow at 4 ºC. Can grow on: Trypticase Soy Agar, Nutrient agar,
Mueller-Hinton agar. Produce diffusible fluorescent  pigment (mostly in iron-deficient
media) and an insoluble phenazine pigment diffusible in medium (green by subsp.
chlororaphis & piscium;  yellow-orange by subsp. aureofaciens & aurantiaca). Can
produce a polyurethane degrading enzyme.
Isolated from water & soil.
Subsp. piscium was isolated from the distal intestine of a European perch (
Perca fluviatilis L.)
Unknown (none). May induce to plants an increased systemic resistance against other bacteria (wildfire pathogens like Erwinia spp.
&
P. syringae). Metabolites with antibiotic activity against Gram-positive bacteria were isolated from the culture fluid of subsp.
aurantiaca.
  1. Peix A., Valverde A., Rivas R., Igual J.M., Ramirez-Bahena M.H., Mateos P.F., Santa-Regina I., Rodriguez-Barrueco C., Martninez-
    Molina E. & Velazquez E.: Reclassification of Pseudomonas aurantiaca as a synonym of  Pseudomonas chlororaphis and
    proposal of three subspecies, P. chlororaphis subsp. chlororaphis subsp. nov., P. chlororaphis subsp. aureofaciens subsp. nov.,
    comb. nov. and P. chlororaphis subsp. aurantiaca subsp. nov., comb. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2007, 57, 1286-1290.
  2. Young Cheol Kim, Ju Yeon Park, Song Hee Han, Kil Yong Kim, Sun Woo Lee & In Seon Kim: Identification of an ISR-Related
    Metabolite Produced by Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6 A gainst the Wildfire Pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci in
    Tobacco J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
  3. Sarah E. Burr, Stefanie Gobeli, Peter Kuhnert, Elinor Goldschmidt-Clermont, and Joachim Frey: Pseudomonas chlororaphis
    subsp. piscium subsp. nov., isolated from freshwater fish. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol December 2010 60:2753-2757.
Positive for oxidase and arginine dihydrolase (Subsp. piscium is ADH-negative).
N-acetylglucosamine, glucose, trehalose, raffinose and D-arabitol are used as
carbon sources.
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