Burkholderia (Pseudomonas) cepacia
Taxonomy
Morphology
Cultural characteristics
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Phylum Proteobacteria, Class Gammaproteobacteria, Order Pseudomonadales, Family Pseudomonadaceae, Genus Pseudomonas,
Pseudomonas cepacia
Burkholder 1950.
Synonym:
Pseudomonas multivorans Stanier et al. 1966 ;
Moved to Class Betaproteobacteria, Order Burkholderiales, Family Burkholderiaceae, Genus Burkholderia,
Burkholderia cepacia,
Yabuuchi et al. 1993 (type species of the genus).
Burkholderia cepacia complex includes species: Burkholderia anthina, B. ambifaria, B. arboris, B.cepacia, B. cenocepacia, B. diffusa,
B. dolosa, B. latens, B. metallica, B. multivorans, B. pyrrocinia, B. seminalis, B. stabilis & B.  vietnamiensis
.

Burkholderia cepacia genomospecies I     => Burkholderia cepacia sensu stricto
Burkholderia cepacia genomospecies II    => Burkholderia multivorans
Burkholderia cepacia genomospecies III   => Burkholderia cenocepacia
Burkholderia cepacia genomospecies IV   => Burkholderia stabilis
Burkholderia cepacia genomospecies V    => Burkholderia vitenamiensis
Burkholderia cepacia genomospecies VI   => Burkholderia dolosa
Burkholderia cepacia genomospecies VII  => Burkholderia ambifaria
Burkholderia cepacia genomospecies VIII => Burkholderia anthina
Burkholderia cepacia genomospecies IX   => Burkholderia pyrrocinia.
Gram negative rods, 0.8-2 μm, motile.
Nonfluorescent pigments produced by most strains in colonies and in surrounding
medium (usually yellow or greenish).  Can produce a large variety of pigments (green,
brownish, red, violet etc.)
Obligately aerobic, optimal growth temperature 30-35 ºC. Media: Trypticase Soy Agar, Nutrient agar, Mueller-Hinton agar, BCSA
medium (NaCl : 5g Saccharose : 10g Lactose : 10g Phennol red: 0,08g Crystal violet : 0,002g Trypticase peptone : 10g Yeast extract
: 1,5g  Agar : 14g  Sulfate de polymyxine B : 600 000 UI Gentamicine : 0,01 Vancomycine : 0,025 H2O ad 1000 ml).
Isolated from water, soil, plants (Allium cepa - onion), animals.
Plant pathogen (rice, onion);
Pneumonia & endocarditis in horse, mammitis in sheeps. Nosocomial infections, urinary tract infections & pneumonia in humans
(cystic fibrosis). Respiratory infections may be fatal.
  1. Palleroni N.J. & Holmes B.: Pseudomonas cepacia sp. nov., nom. rev. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1981, 31, 479-481.
  2. Yabuuchi E., Kosako Y., Oyaizu H., Yano I., Hotta H., Hashimoto Y., Ezaki T. & Arakawa M.: Proposal of Burkholderia gen. nov. and
    transfer of seven species of the genus Pseudomonas homology group II to the new genus, with the type species Burkholderia
    cepacia (Palleroni and Holmes 1981) comb. nov. Microbiol. Immunol., 1992, 36, 1251-1275.
  3. Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol. 2, part C: The Alpha-, Beta-, Delta-, and Epsilonproteobacteria .  Class II.
    Betaproteobacteria, Order I. Burkholderiales, 575-623.
  4. Vanlaere E., Lipuma J.J., Baldwin A., Henry D., De Brandt E., Mahenthiralingam E., Speert D., Dowson C. & Vandamme P.:
    Burkholderia latens sp. nov., Burkholderia diffusa sp. nov., Burkholderia arboris sp. nov., Burkholderia seminalis sp. nov. and
    Burkholderia metallica sp. nov., novel species within the Burkholderia cepacia complex. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2008, 58,
    1580-1590.
  5. Teizi Urakami, Chieko Ito-Yoshida, Hisaya Araki, Toshio Kijima, Ken-Ichiro Suzuki, and Kazuo Komagata: Transfer of
    Pseudomonas plantarii and Pseudomonas glumae to Burkholderia as Burkholderia spp. and Description of Burkholderia vandii
    sp. nov. Int J Syst Bacteriol April 1994 44:235-245.
Utilize D-ribose, arabinose, fucose, trehalose, cellobiose, salicin, N-acetylglucosamine, amygdalin, arbutin, 2- & 5-ketogluconate,
D-lyxose, ribose, tagatose, adonitol, arabitol, dulcitol, xylitol, aconitate, adipate, azelate, butyrate, caprate, caproate, caprylate,
citraconate, citrate, glutarate, glycolate, isobutyrate, isovalerate, itaconate, valerate, tartrate, arginine, citruline, cysteine, glycine,
histidine, isoleucine, lysine, treonine, tryptophan, tyrosine, valine, benzoate, m- & o-hydroxybenzoate. Can use more than 100
different organic compounds as sole carbon source for growth.

Maltose, tartrate, mesaconate, erythritol, lactose, ethanol, are not utilized. Nitrate is reduced, denitrifcation does not occur. Arginine
dihydrolase, esculin hydrolysis are negative.

Sucrose utilization is variable, gelatin is hydrolyzed by some strains. Lecithinase variable.
(c) Costin Stoica
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