Paraburkholderia  caryophylli
Cultural characteristics
Biochemical characters
Phylum Proteobacteria, Class Betaproteobacteria, Order Burkholderiales, Family Burkholderiaceae, Genus Paraburkholderia,
Paraburkholderia caryophylli Sawana et al. 2015.
Pseudomonas  caryophylli  Starr and Burkholder 1942, Phytomonas caryophylli Burkholder 1942, Burkholderia
Yabuuchi et al. 1993.
Gram-negative rods, 0.8-1.0 μm x 1.6-3.2 μm in diameter.
Aerobic, but  can use nitrate as the terminal electron acceptor under anaerobic
conditions. Optimum growth temperature 30 - 33 ºC.  Grow on media: Trypticase Soy
Agar, Nutrient agar, Sorbitol neutral red agar, Potato dextrose agar.
Isolated from Dianthus caryophylli  (carnation).
Plant pathogen. Causes carnation’s  wilt, stem cracking and  progressive rot of stems and roots.
Dianthus barbatus and D. allwoodii can be infected through artificial inoculation.
  1. Burkholder W.H.: Three bacterial plant pathogens, Phytomonas caryophylli, sp. n., Phytomonas alliicola sp. n., and Phytomonas
    manihoti (Arthaud-Berthet et Bondar) Viegas. Phytopathology, 1942, 32, 141-149.
  2. Starr M.P. & Burkholder W.H.: Lipolytic activity of phytopathogenic bacteria determined by means of spirit blue agar and its
    taxonomic significance. Phytopathology, 1942, 32, 598-604.
  3. Yabuuchi E., Kosako Y., Oyaizu H., Yano I., Hotta H., Hashimoto Y., Ezaki T. & Arakawa M.: Proposal of Burkholderia gen. nov. and
    transfer of seven species of the genus Pseudomonas homology group II to the new genus, with the type species Burkholderia
    cepacia (Palleroni and Holmes 1981) comb. nov. Microbiol. Immunol., 1992, 36, 1251-1275.
  4. Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol. 2, part C: The Alpha-, Beta-, Delta-, and Epsilonproteobacteria .  Class II.
    Betaproteobacteria, Order I. Burkholderiales, 575-623.
  5. Teizi Urakami, Chieko Ito-Yoshida, Hisaya Araki, Toshio Kijima, Ken-Ichiro Suzuki, and Kazuo Komagata: Transfer of
    Pseudomonas plantarii and Pseudomonas glumae to Burkholderia as Burkholderia spp. and Description of Burkholderia vandii
    sp. nov. Int J Syst Bacteriol April 1994 44:235-245.
  6. Viallard, Veronique, Poirier, Isabelle, Cournoyer, Benoit, Haurat, Jacqueline, Wiebkin, Sue, Ophel-Keller, Kathy, Balandreau,
    Jacques. Burkholderia graminis sp. nov., a rhizospheric Burkholderia species, and reassessment of [Pseudomonas]
    phenazinium, [Pseudomonas] pyrrocinia and [Pseudomonas] glathei as Burkholderia. Int J Syst Bacteriol 1998 48: 549-563.
  7. Sawana, A., Adeolu, M. and Gupta, R.S. 2014. Molecular signatures and phylogenomic analysis of the genus Burkholderia:
    proposal for division of this genus into the emended genus Burkholderia containing pathogenic organisms and a new genus
    Paraburkholderia gen. nov. harboring environmental species. Front. Genet., 5, 429.
Can utilize n-acetylglucosamine, D- and L-alanine, arabinose, glucosamine, gluconate,
2- & 5- ketogluconate, L-serine, fucose, D-lyxose, raffinose, rhamnose, ribose, sucrose,
trehalose, xylose, adonitol, arabitol, xylitol, aconitate, azelate, citrate, oxalate, propionate, sebacate, beta-alanine, L-arginine, L-histidine,
L-isoleucine, ornithine, phenilalanine, tryptophan, tyrosine, valine, betaine, glucose, mannose, mannitol, sorbitol, cysteine, L-leucine &

Cannot utilize amygdalin, lactose, maltose, melibiose, salicin, tagatose, dulcitol,
erythritol, adipate, caprate, caproate, caprylate, citraconate, glutarate, heptanoate, itaconate, levulinate, malonate, mesaconate,
pelargonate, pimelate, tartrate, valerate, L-citrulline, glycine, norvaline, butilamine, ethanolamine, histamine, spermine & triptamine.

Arginine dihydrolase, oxidase & denitrification are positive. Lecithinase is variable.
Beta-galactosidase, H
2S production, esculin, gelatin & starch hydrolysis are negative.
(c) Costin Stoica
Culture media
Biochemical tests
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