Burkholderia gladioli (Pseudomonas antimicrobica)
Taxonomy
Morphology
Growth conditions
Biochemical characters
Ecology
Pathogenicity
References
Phylum Proteobacteria, Class  Betaproteobacteria, Order Burkholderiales, Family Burkholderiaceae, Genus Burkholderia,
Burkholderia gladioli
, Yabuuchi et al. 1993. Pseudomonas antimicrobica Attafuah and Bradbury 1990 it's a junior synonym.
Old synonyms: Pseudomonas gladioli, Severini 1913;  Pseudomonas marginata, Mc Culloch 1921;
- 4 pathovars: gladioli, alliicola, agaricicola, cocovenenans.
Gram negative rods. Motile at room temperature, nonmotile at 37 ºC.
Poli-beta-hydroxybutyrate inclusions are present.
Strictly aerobic, growth temperature 30 ºC. Can Grow at 41 ºC. Fluorescent diffusible
pigments are not produced. Grows on media: Trypticase Soy Agar ± 5% sheep blood,
Mac Conkey agar.
Isolated from plants, soil, human clinical samples (respiratory).
Mainly a plant pathogen – onion bulb  rot (pv. alliicola),  grain rot & leaf-sheath browning in rice plants, leaves pathogen for some
orchidaceous plants (cymbidium, dendrobium, and oncidium leaves) & gladiolus (pv. gladioli).  On gladiolus corms produce water-
soaked brown spots, outlined in yellow which can become hollow and surrounded by scabs, leaving behind cavities or lesions when
removed. Causes soft rot of cultivate mushrooms (pv. agaricicola).
Antagonistic to plant pathogenic fungi.
Pathovar coccovenenans is a human pathogen, involved in food poisoing (2 toxin produced: toxoflavin & bongkrekic acid).
Nosocomial infections; isolated from respiratory samples of patients with cistic fibrosis & from otitis media infection.  2 cases of
isolation from chronic granulomatous disease reported. Keratitis, absceses.
  1. Severini G.: Una bacteriosi dell’Ixia maculate e del Gladiolus. Colvili. Ann. Bot. (Rome) 11: 413-424.
  2. Coenye T., Gillis M. & Vandamme P.: Pseudomonas antimicrobica Attafuah and Bradbury 1990 is a junior synonym of
    Burkholderia gladioli (Severini 1913) Yabuuchi et al. 1993. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 2000, 50, 2135-2139.
  3. Attafuah A. & Bradbury J.F.: Pseudomonas antimicrobica, a new species strongly antagonistic to plant pathogens. J. Appl.
    Bacteriol., 1989, 67, 567-573.
  4. Ritterband David ; Shah Mahendra ; Cohen Kenneth ; Lawrence Joy ; Seedor John: Burkholderia gladioli keratitis associated with
    consecutive recurrent endophthalmitis. Cornea  ISSN 0277-3740, 2002, vol. 21, 6, 602-603.
  5. Ross J. P. ; Holland S. M. ; Gill V. J. ; Decarlo E. S. ; Gallin J. I.: Severe Burkholderia (Pseudomonas) gladioli infection in chronic
    granulomatous disease : report of two successfully treated cases. Clin. infect. dis. 1995, vol. 21, 5, 1291-1293.
  6. G.S. Saddler: Burkholderia gladioli pv. alliicola. IMI Descriptions of Fungi and Bacteria, 1994  (No. 122) Sheet 1217.
  7. Hiroyuki Ura, Naruto Furuya, Kazuhiro Iiyama, Masatomo Hidaka, Kenichi Tsuchiy3 and Nobuaki Matsuyama: Burkholderia
    gladioli associated with symptoms of bacterial grain rot and leaf-sheath browning of rice plants. J. Gen Plant Pathol (2006) 72:98–
    103.
  8. Zhenquan Jiao, Yoshiaki Kawamura, Noriko Mishima, Ruifu Yang, Na Li, Xiumei Liu & Takayuki Ezaki: Need to Differentiate Lethal
    Toxin-Producing Strains of Burkholderia gladioli, Which Cause Severe Food Poisoning: Description of B. gladioli Pathovar
    cocovenenans and an Emended Description of B. gladioli. Micr. & Immun. Vol. 47 (2003) , No. 12 pp.915-925.
  9. Teizi Urakami, Chieko Ito-Yoshida, Hisaya Araki, Toshio Kijima, Ken-Ichiro Suzuki, and Kazuo Komagata: Transfer of
    Pseudomonas plantarii and Pseudomonas glumae to Burkholderia as Burkholderia spp. and Description of Burkholderia vandii
    sp. nov. Int J Syst Bacteriol April 1994 44:235-245.
Positive results for arginine dihydrolase, gelatin hydrolysis, denitrification, lecithinase, oxidase, starch hydrolysis, utilization of:
D-ribose, D-arabinose, L-arabinose, D-fucose, D-glucose, N-acetylglucosamineb, D-mannose, D-galactose, D-fructose, sucrose,
cellobiose, gluconate, 2-ketogluconate, sacchare, mucate, salicin, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate, valerate, malonate,
succinate, fumarate, D-malate, L-malate, m-tartrate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, lactate, glycerate, hydroxymethyl-glutarate, citrate, alpha-
ketoglutarate, pyruvate, aconitate, mannitol, sorbitol, m-inositol, adonitol, glycerol, p-hydroxybenzoate, phenylacetate, quinate,
L-alanine, beta-alanine, L-serine, L-cysteine, L-aspartate, L- glutamate, L-arginine, gamma-aminobutyrate, L-histidine, L-proline,
L-tyrosine, L-phenylalanine, L-tryptophan, betaine, hippurate, L-leucine, L-valine, trehalose, L-threonine, D-xylose, n-propanol,
heptanoate, caproate, caprylate, pelargonate, caprate, adipate, azelate, sebacate, citraconate, adonitol, dulcitol, benzoate,
D-alanine, ornithine, kynurenate, ethanolamine, 2-aminobenzoate, D(-)-Tartrate, mesaconate, L(-)-Tartrate, ethanol, L-isoleucine,
nicotinate & trigonelline.

Negative results for esculin hydrolysis, phenylalanine deaminase, H
2S production, indole production, utilization of: L-rhamnose,
glycolate, lyxose, tagatose, 5-ketogluconate, melibiose, gentiobiose, raffinose, amygdalin, arbutin, aesculin, salicin, L-arabitol,
pimelate, suberate, levulinate, m-hydroxybenzoate, D-aminovalerate, putrescine, spermine, butylamine, tryptamine,  
alpha-amylamine, diaminobutane,  L-fucose, 2,3-butylene glycol, D-arabitol, xylitol, L-mandelate, benzoylformate,
o-hydroxybenzoate, testosterone, benzylamine, histamine & acetamide.

Variable results for urease, ONPG, utilization of: isovalerate, glutarate, citrulline, anthranilate, sarcosine, Itaconate, propylene glycol,
glycine, norleucine, alpha-aminobutyrate, alpha-aminovalerate, n-butanol & isobutanol.
(c) Costin Stoica
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