Proteus hauseri - Gram-staining
Proteus swarming motility
Genus Proteus
Taxonomy
Morphology
Cultural characteristics
Biochemical characters
Ecology
Pathogenicity
References
Phylum Proteobacteria, Class Gammaproteobacteria, Order Enterobacteriales, Family Enterobacteriaceae, Genus Proteus,
- Proteus hauseri  O'Hara et al. 2000;
- Proteus mirabilis Hauser 1885;
- Proteus morganii  Yale 1939 (synonym of  Morganella morganii, Winslow et al. 1919);
- Proteus myxofaciens Cosenza and Podgwaite 1966 moved to genus Cosenzaea as
Cosenzaea myxofaciens (Cosenza and Podgwaite 1966) Giammanco et al. 2011;
- Proteus penneri Hickman et al. 1983;
- Proteus rettgeri Rustigian and Stuart 1943 (Hadley et al. 1918 - Bacterium rettgeri),
synonym of:
Providencia rettgeri, Brenner et al. 1978;
- Proteus vulgaris  Hauser 1885.
Gram negative, straight rods, 0.4-0.6 x 1.0-3.0 μm.
Facultatively anaerobic, growth temperature 37 ºC. Highly motile by peritrichous
flagella, resulting a thin film of bacteria on the agar surface (swarming).
S-type,non-pigmented colonies on swarming inhibitory media. Majority are are
hemolytic on blood agar.
Isolation & growth media:
Nutrient agar or nutrient broth, Mueller-Hinton agar, Trypticase Soy Agar ± 5% sheep
blood – swarming, transparent, non-hemolytic colonies (with few exceptions)
Mac Conkey – white-transparent colonies (lactose negative) – swarming inhibited
Rambach agar – white-transparent colonies (lactose negative) – swarming inhibited

The Dienes test can be used to determine whether two or more isolates of P. mirabilis are the same
or different. The test is based on the mutual inhibition of two different strains as they swarm towards
one another on solid medium surface. If the two strains are genetically distinct,  a clear line of
demarcation will form as the swarming edge of one strain meets the other. If the two strains are
related or identical, there is no mutual inhibition and the swarming edges merge with no visible
line of demarcation.
Isolated from urine, faeces (human & animals sources), soil & sewage. Commonly
found in the intestinal tract as part of normal flora.
P. myxofaciens has been isolated only from living and dead gypsy moth larvae
(
Porthetria dispar).
Urinary tract infections, wounds & burns infections. Proteus mirabilis causes 90% of
the infections (mostly nosocomial).
Urease production (increases the risk of pyelonephritis), together with the presence
of fimbriae and bacterial motility may favor the production of upper urinary tract
infections.
Proteus vulgaris OX-19 and OX-2 strains have the same O-polysaccharides as the
pathogenic bacteria
Rickettsia prowazekii,  a pathogenic bacteria that causes
typhus, that is they produce the same immune response as infection by Rickettsia
(Weil-Felix test).
  1. J. G.Holt et al., 1994. Begey’s manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th-edition, Williams & Wilkins.1994.
  2. O'Hara C.M., Brenner F.W., Steigerwalt A.G., Hill B.C., Holmes B., Grimont P.A.D., Hawkey P.M., Penner J.L., Miller J.M. & Brenner D.
    J.: Classification of Proteus vulgaris biogroup 3 with recognition of Proteus hauseri sp. nov., nom. rev. and unnamed Proteus
    genomospecies 4, 5 and 6. Int. J. Syst. Evol.  Microbiol., 2000, 50, 1869-1875.
  3. Winslow C.E.A., Kligler I.J. & Rothberg  W.: Studies on the classification of the colon-typhoid group of bacteria with special
    reference to their fermentative reactions. Journal of Bacteriology, 1919, 4, 429-503.
  4. Cosenza B.J. & Podgwaite J.D.: A new species of Proteus isolated from larvae of the gypsy moth Porthetria dispar (L.). Antonie van
    Leeuwenhoek Journal of Microbiology and Serology, 1966, 32, 187-191.
  5. Hickman F.W., Steigerwalt A.G., Farmer III J.J. & Brenner D.J.: Identification of Proteus penneri sp. nov., formerly known as Proteus
    vulgaris indole negative or as Proteus vulgaris biogroup 1. J. Clin. Microbiol., 1982, 15, 1097-1102.
  6. Amano K.I., Williams J.C., Dasch G.A.: Structural properties of lipopolysaccharides from Rickettsia typhi and Rickettsia prowazekii
    and their chemical similarity to the lipopolysaccharide from Proteus vulgaris OX 19 used in the Weil-Felix test. Infect Immun. 1998
    Mar;66(3):923-926.
  7. Don J. Brenner & J.J. Farmer III, 2004, Family I. Enterobacteriaceae, In:  Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Second
    edition,Vol two, part B, George M. Garrity (Editor-in-Chief),   pp. 740-744.
  8. Euzeby J.P., List of  Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature - Genus Cosenzaea, http://www.bacterio.cict.fr/c/cosenzaea.
    html.
Positive results for phenylalanine deaminase, urease, nitrates reduction, catalase,
methyl red & acid production from glucose (usually with gas). Generally produce acid
from glycerol.

Negative results for oxidase, ONPG, malonate utilization, arginine dihydrolase, lysine
decarboxylase, acid production from: adonitol, L-arabinose, D-arabitol, cellobiose,
dulcitol, erythritol, inositol, lactose, D-mannitol, D-mannose, raffinose, L-rhamnose &
D-sorbitol.

Variable results for DN-ase & lipase (corn oil).

Proteus hauseri  is biochemically similar to strains commonly identified as Proteus
vulgaris
, but esculin & salicin negative (only 2 strains of Proteus hauseri  reported).
For Proteus morganii see Morganella morganii.
For Proteus rettgeri see Providencia rettgeri.
For Proteus myxofaciens see Cosenzaea myxofaciens.
(c) Costin Stoica
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R E G N U M
PROKARYOTAE
 
H2S
production
Ornithine
decarboxylase
Citrate
utilization
Indole
production
Sucrose
fermentation
D-xylose
fermentation
Maltose
fermentation
AMDG
fermentation
P. mirabilis
+
+
d
-
[-]
+
-
-
Cosenzaea (Proteus)
myxofaciens
-
-
+
-
+
-
+
-
P. penneri
d
-
-
-
+
+
+
d
P. vulgaris
+
-
[-]
+
+
+
+
+
Legend:  + positive 90-100%, - negative 90-100%, [+] positive 75-89%, [-] negative 75-89%, d positive 25-74% of strains, AMDG: Alpha-Methyl-D-Glucoside
Differential characters of Proteus species:
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