Genus Pantoea
Taxonomy
Morphology
Cultural characteristics
Biochemical characters
Ecology
Pathogenicity
References
Phylum Proteobacteria, Class Gammaproteobacteria, Order Enterobacteriales, Family Enterobacteriaceae, Genus Pantoea,
=>
Pantoea agglomerans - type species of the genus, Gavini  1989, old synonyms: Bacillus agglomerans, Beijerinck 1888,
Enterobacter agglomerans, Ewing and Fife 1972, Erwinia herbicola (Löhnis 1911) Dye 1964,
=>
Pantoea ananatis Mergaert et al. 1993, basonym: Erwinia ananas, other synonyms: Bacillus ananas Serrano 1928, Erwinia
uredovora (Pon et al. 1954) Dye 1963, Erwinia herbicola var. ananas (Serrano 1928) Dye 1969,
=> Pantoea anthophila * Brady et al. 2009,
=>
Pantoea cypripedii (Hori 1911) Brady et al. 2010, basonym: Erwinia cypripedii (Hori 1911) Bergey et al. 1923,
=>
Pantoea deleyi * Brady et al. 2009,
=>
Pantoea dispersa Gavini et al. 1989,
=>
Pantoea eucalypti * Brady et al. 2009,
=>
Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii (Smith 1898) Mergaert et al. 1993, basonym: Erwinia stewartii, Dye 1963;
=>
Pantoea stewartii subsp. indologenes  Mergaert et al. 1993,
=>
Pantoea vagans * Brady et al. 2009.

Species marked with * are not included in ABIS database.
Pantoea punctata, Pantoea citrea & Pantoea terrea were moved to genus Tatumella
Gram negative, nonsporing rods, 0.5-1.3 x 1.0-3.0 μm, motile by peritrichous flagella.
Some bacteria forms aggregate structures called `symplasmata'.
Colonies on nutrient agar are smooth, translucent, and more or less convex with
entire margins. Nonpigmented or yellow, pale beige to pale reddish yellow colonies.
Facultatively anaerobic, growth temperature 30 - 37 ºC.
Grow on media: Nutrient agar or nutrient broth; Trypticase Soy Agar ± 5% sheep blood;
Luria-Bertani  medium.
P. stewartii colonies produce a yellow/orange pigment.
Widely distributed in nature. Isolated from water, soil, plants, human & animal feces.
Pantoea (Erwinia) stewartii  subsp. stewartii was isolated from maize (sweet corn). Pantoea stewartii subsp. indologenes was isolated
from
foxtail millet (Setaria italica), pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum), pineaple (Ananas comosus) and cluster bean (Cyamopsis
tetragonolobus
).
Pantoea punctata, Pantoea citrea & Pantoea terrea were isolated from fruit  and soil samples.
Pantoea cypripedii was isolated from orchids.
Pantoea anthophila was isolated from Impatiens balsamina in India.
Pantoea deleyi and Pantoea eucalypti were isolated from eucalyptus leaves.
Pantoea vagans was isolated from eucalyptus leaves and maize.
Pantoea (Enterobacter) agglomerans can cause opportunistic infections in immune
compromised patients. Some reports of arthritis caused by
P.  agglomerans wound
infection (plant thorn injury).
Pantoea cypripedii affects Cypripedium and other orchids (brown rots, maceration).
Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii causes ‘Stewart’s bacterial wilt and leaf blight
disease in corn (insects vectors).
Pantoea stewartii subsp. indologenes causes leaf spot on foxtail millet (Setaria italica),
pearl millet (
Pennisetum americanum) and rot of pineaple (Ananas comosus).
Pantoea ananatis (Erwinia ananas / Erwinia uredovora) causes pink disease in
pineapple (
Ananas comosus), leafspot in  syngonium (Syngonium podophyllum),
purple stain in papaya (
Carica papaya),  & cereal rust. One report of bacteremia in
humans.
Pantoea deleyi and Pantoea eucalypti produce bacterial blight and die-back of eucalyptus leaves.
Pantoea vagans causes bacterial blight and die-back of eucalyptus and brown stalk rot of maize.
  1. J. G.Holt et al., 1994. Begey’s manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th-edition, Williams & Wilkins.1994;
  2. Beijerinck, M. W. Cultur des Bacillus radicicola aus den Knöllchen. Bot Ztg 46, 740–750, 1888;
  3. Ewing, W. H. & Fife, M. A. Enterobacter agglomerans (Beijerinck) comb. nov. (the herbicola-lathyri bacteria). Int J Syst Bacteriol 22,
    4–11, 1972.
  4. Gavini F., Mergaert J., Beji A., Mielcarek C., Izard D., Kersters K. & De Ley J.: Transfer of Enterobacter  agglomerans (Beijerinck
    1888) Ewing and Fife 1972 to Pantoea gen. nov. as Pantoea agglomerans comb. nov. and description of Pantoea dispersa sp.
    nov. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1989, 39, 337-345.
  5. Mergaert J.et al.: Transfer of Erwinia ananas (synonym Erwinia uredovora) and Erwinia stewartii to the genus Pantoea emend. as
    Pantoea ananas (Serrano 1928) comb. nov. and Pantoea stewartii (Smith 1898) comb. nov., respectively, and description of
    Pantoea stewartii subsp. indologenes subsp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1993, 43, 162-173.
  6. Kageyama B., Nakae M., Yagi S. & Sonoyama T.: Pantoea punctata sp. nov., Pantoea citrea sp. nov., and Pantoea terrea sp. nov.
    isolated from fruit and soil samples. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1992, 42, 203-210.
  7. Thierry De Baere et al.: Bacteremic Infection with Pantoea ananatis, Journal of Clinical Microbiology, September 2004, p. 4393-
    4395, Vol. 42, No. 9.
  8. Don J. Brenner and J.J. Farmer III, 2001. Family I. Enterobacteriaceae. In:  Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Second
    edition,Vol two, part B, George M. Garrity (Editor-in-Chief), pp 587-897.
  9. Carrie L. Brady, Stephanus N. Venter, Ilse Cleenwerck, Katrien Engelbeen, Marc Vancanneyt, Jean Swings, and Teresa A.
    Coutinho. Pantoea vagans sp. nov., Pantoea eucalypti sp. nov., Pantoea deleyi sp. nov. and Pantoea anthophila sp. nov. Int J Syst
    Evol Microbiol September 2009 59:2339-2345.
Positive results for catalase, DN-ase, acid production from glucose, D-mannitol, L-arabinose, D-mannose, trehalose & D-xylose.

Negative results for oxidase, arginine dihydrolase, lysine decarboxylase, ornithine decarboxylase, urea hydrolysis, phenylalanine
deaminase, acid production from: dulcitol, alpha-methyl-D-glucoside & D-adonitol.
(c) Costin Stoica
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R E G N U M
PROKARYOTAE
 
Motility
Gelatin
hydrolysis
Salicin
fermentation
Indole
production
Growth on KCN
Voges -
Proskauer
Lactose
fermentation
P. agglomerans
[+]
-
d
[-]
d
d
d
P. ananatis
+
+
+
+
-
+
+
P. cypripedii
+
-
+
-
+
-
-
P. dispersa
+
-
-
-
[+]
d
-
P. stewartii subsp.
stewartii
-
-
-
-
-
d
-
P. stewartii subsp.
indologenes
d
-
+
+
-
d
+
Differential characters of the species (P. anthophila, P. deley, P. eucalypti & P. vagans are not included in ABIS database):
Legend:  + positive 90-100%, - negative 90-100%, [+] positive 75-89%, [-] negative 75-89%, d positive 25-74% of strains
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