Legend: +  positive 90-100%, - negative 90-100%, [+] positive 75-89%, [-] negative 75-89%, d positive 25-74% of strains
Genus Kluyvera
Taxonomy
Morphology
Cultural characteristics
Biochemical characters
Ecology
Pathogenicity
References
Phylum Proteobacteria, Class Gammaproteobacteria, Order Enterobacteriales, Family Enterobacteriaceae, Genus Kluyvera,
- Kluyvera ascorbata - type species of the genus, Farmer et al. 1981,
- Kluyvera cryocrescens Farmer et al. 1981,
- Kluyvera intermedia (Izard et al. 1980) Pavan et al. 2005 , basonym: Enterobacter intermedius Izard et al. 1980,
late synonym:
Kluyvera cochleae  Müller et al. 1996;
- Kluyvera georgiana Müller et al. 1996.
Gram negative, straight cells, motile by peritrichous flagella.
Colonies are circular, convex, greyish, and smooth on nutrient agar and blood
agar, 1 to 3 mm in diameter. Non-pigmented.
No special growth requirements.
Facultatively anaerobic, optimum growth temperature 30 - 37 ºC.
Widely distributed in nature. Isolated from clinical samples (humans & animals). Resistant to carbenicillin; penicillin, ampicillin and
cephalothin. Some strains produce kluyveramycin, unusual reddish blue crystals of unknown composition.
Kluyvera species are infrequent opportunistic pathogens. They may cause urinary, gastro-intestinal & respiratory infections,
bacteremia, peritonitis and soft-tissue infections.
  1. J. G.Holt et al., 1994. Begey’s manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th-edition, Williams & Wilkins.
  2. Don J. Brenner and J.J. Farmer III, 2001. Family I. Enterobacteriaceae. In:  Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Second
    edition,Vol two, part B, George M. Garrity (Editor-in-Chief), pp 587-897.
  3. Farmer III J.J.: Kluyvera, a new (redefined) genus in the family Enterobacteriaceae: identification of Kluyvera ascorbata sp. nov. and
    Kluyvera cryocrescens sp. nov. in clinical specimens. J. Clin. Microbiol.,1981, 13, 919-933.
  4. Pavan M.E., Franco R.J., Rodriguez J.M., Gadaleta P., Abbott S.L., Janda J.M. & Zorzopulos J.: Phylogenetic relationships of the
    genus Kluyvera: transfer of Enterobacter intermedius Izard et al. 1980 to the genus Kluyvera as Kluyvera intermedia comb. nov. and
    reclassification of Kluyvera cochleae as a later synonym of K. intermedia. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2005, 55, 437-442.
  5. Muller H.E., Brenner D.J., Fanning G.R., Grimont P.A.D.& Kampfer P.: Emended description of Buttiauxella agrestis with recognition
    of six new species of Buttiauxella and two new species of Kluyvera: Buttiauxella ferragutiae sp. nov., Buttiauxella gaviniae sp. nov.,
    Buttiauxella brennerae sp. nov., Buttiauxella izardii sp. nov., Buttiauxella noackiae sp. nov., Buttiauxella warmboldiae sp. nov.,
    Kluyvera cochleae sp. nov., and Kluyvera georgiana sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1996, 46, 50-63.
Positive results for catalase (weak), nitrate reduction, indole production, methyl red,
citrate utilization (Simmons), KCN test, malonate utilization, esculin hydrolysis, acid
production from  L-arabinose, cellobiose, glucose, lactose, maltose, alpha-methyl-D
-glucoside, D-galactose, melibiose, D-mannitol, mucate, D-mannose, raffinose, L-rhamnose, salicin, sucrose, trehalose & D-xylose,

Negative results for oxidase, H
2S production (TSI), urea hydrolysis, phenylalanine deaminase, arginine dihydrolase, gelatin
hydrolysis, lipase, DN-ase, acid production from: D-arabitol, adonitol, myo-inositol & erythritol.

The tests normally used for identification does not clearly differentiate
Kluyvera ascorbata from Kluyvera cryocrescens, although
these two species can be differentiated by the
K. ascorbata positive ascorbate test & growth failure at 5 ºC.
(c) Costin Stoica
Antibiogram
Encyclopedia
Culture media
Biochemical tests
Stainings
Images
Movies
Articles
Identification
Software
R E G N U M
PROKARYOTAE
 
Acetate
utilization
Indole
production
Ornithine
decarboxylase
Voges-Proskauer
D-Sorbitol
fermentation
Dulcitol
fermentation
Glycerol
fermentation
K. ascorbata
d
+
+
-
d
[-]
d
K. cryocrescens
[+]
+
[-]
-
d
-
-
K. georgiana
[+]
+
+
-
-
d
d
K. intermedia
-
-
-
+
+
+
+
Differential characters of the species:
Previous page
Back