Acetoin
production
Gelatin
hydrolysis
Citrate
utilization
Nitrate
reduction
L-Arabinose
(acid)
Cellobiose
(acid)
Trehalose
(acid)
Xylose
(acid)
E. amylovora
+
+
+
-
d
-
+
-
E. aphidicola
+
-
+
+
+
+
+
+
E. billingiae
+
-
-
+
+
-
+
+
E. mallotivora
+
d
+
-
-
-
d
d
E. persicina
+
-
+
+
+
+
+
-
E. psidii
-
d
ND
-
+
-
-
-
E. pyrifoliae
+
-
-
-
ND
-
ND
-
E. rhapontici
d
-
+
+
+
+
+
d
E.  tracheiphila
d
-
-
-
d
-
-
-
E. toletana
+
-
+
-
+
+
+
ND
Legend:  + positive 90-100%, - negative 90-100%, [+] positive 75-89%, [-] negative 75-89%, d positive 25-74% of strains
Differential characters of the species:
Genus Erwinia
Taxonomy
Morphology
Cultural characteristics
Biochemical characters
Ecology
Pathogenicity
References
Phylum Proteobacteria, Class Gammaproteobacteria, Order Enterobacteriales, Family Enterobacteriaceae, Genus Erwinia,
- Erwinia amylovora – type species,  Burrill 1882, old synonyms: Bacillus amylovorus, Bacterium amylovorus, Micrococcus amylovorus;
- Erwinia aphidicola
Harada et al. 1998;
- Erwinia billingiae Mergaert et al. 1999;
- Erwinia carnegieana (Pectobacterium carnegieana), Standring 1942 - both names were proposed for rejection; no original isolates
are available.
- Erwinia mallotivora, Goto 1976 emend. Hauben et al. 1998.
- Erwinia oleae Moretti et al. 2011; *
- Erwinia papayae, Gardan et al. 2004; *
- Erwinia persicina corrig. Hao et al. 1990;
- Erwinia piriflorinigrans Lopez et al. 2011; *
- Erwinia psidii, Rodrigues Neto et al. 1988;
- Erwinia pyrifoliae, Kim et al. 1999;
- Erwinia rhapontici  (Millard 1924) Burkholder 1948, homotypic synonym: Pectobacterium rhapontici (Millard 1924) Patel and Kulkarni
1951, other synonyms:
Phytomonas rhapontica, Bacterium rhaponticum, Aplanobacter rhaponticum, Xanthomonas rhapontica,
Pseudobacterium rhapontici, Erwinia carotovora var. rhapontici;
- Erwinia tasmaniensis Geider et al. 2006; *
- Erwinia toletana, Rojas et al. 2004
- Erwinia tracheiphila (Smith 1895) Bergey et al. 1923 emend. Hauben et al. 1998, old synonyms: Bacillus tracheiphilus, Bacterium
tracheiphilus
, Erwinia amylovora var. tracheiphila.
- Erwinia typographi  
Skrodenyte-Arbaciauskiene et al. 2012. *
Gram negative, straight bacilli, motile by peritrichous flagella, 0.5-1.0 x 1-3 μm.
Colonies are generally smooth,  mucoid and domed and can vary in color from white to
light-beige, circular, 1-3 mm in diameter after 24–48 hours.
E. rhapontici produces a weakly diffusible pink pigment (ferrorosamine). E. persicina
produces a pinkish or peach-colored pigment. Facultatively anaerobic.
Optimum growth temperature 26 - 30 ºC. Normally grow at temperatures below 36 ºC.
Media: Nutrient agar or nutrient broth, Trypticase Soy Agar ± 5% sheep blood, Luria-
Bertani (LB) agar, Brain-heart infusion (BHI) agar.
Associated with plants as pathogens, saprophites or as constituents of the epiphytic flora.  Widely distributed in nature.
Pantoea agglomerans & Pseudomonas fluorescens are antagonistic toward E. amylovora
Erwinia aphidicola  was isolated from aphids ( Acyrthosiphon pisum).
They are mostly plant pathogens.
- Erwinia amylovora causes ‘fireblight disease’ on apple, pear, and other Rosaceae.
-
Erwinia aphidicola - isolated from aphids. Undetermined pathogenicity.
- Erwinia billingiae was isolated from stem cankers, diseased blossoms,
and immature fruits mainly of rosaceous trees. Considered as a secondary pathogen.
- Erwinia carnegiana causes bacterial spot of watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris).
- Erwinia mallotivora produces black leaf spot in Mallotus japonicus tree.
- Erwinia papayae is a  pathogen of papaya (Carica papaya).
- Erwinia persicina is the causative agent of necrosis of bean pods and seeds, red-
brown fruit in cucumber, tomato, banana. One report of human isolate from urinary
tract infection.
- Erwinia psidii causes fruit rot in guava. Experimentally was pathogenic to strawberry
guava (
Psidium cattleianum Lam.), jambolana (Eugenia jambolana Lam.),
“melaleuca” (
Melaleuca viridiflora Brogn. and Gris.), and Myrtaceae family.
- Erwinia pyrifoliae produces leaf and steb blight of pears.
- Erwinia rhapontici causes ‘pink pea’ and results in weaker plants with reduced seed yield and quality. Causes a crown rot of
rhubarb (
Rheum rhaponticum) that extends into the center of the root, pink grain of wheat, internal browning of hyacinth bulbs, and
occurs epiphytically and saprophytically in lesions caused by other bacteria. May rot potato, onion, and cucumber slices.
-
Erwinia tasmaniensis - was isolated from apple flowers, pear flowers and bark of apple trees. Non-pathogenic for apple or pear
trees.
- Erwinia toletana was associated with Pseudomonas savastanoi-induced knots in olive trees.
E. tracheiphila causes bacterial wilt of cucurbits (muskmelon, squash, and pumpkin). Watermelon seems to be resistant.
  1. J. G.Holt et al., 1994. Begey’s manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th-edition, Williams & Wilkins.
  2. Don J. Brenner and J.J. Farmer III, 2001. Family I. Enterobacteriaceae. In:  Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Second
    edition,Vol two, part B, George M. Garrity (Editor-in-Chief), pp 587-897.
  3. Harada (H.), et al.: Erwinia aphidicola, a new species isolated from pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. J. Gen. Appl. Microbiol.,
    1997, 43, 349-354.
  4. Joris Mergaert, Lysiane Hauben, Margo C. Cnockaert, and Jean Swings. Reclassification of non-pigmented Erwinia herbicola
    strains from trees as Erwinia billingiae sp. nov. Int J Syst Bacteriol April 1999 49:377-383.
  5. Mergaert J.et al.: Transfer of Erwinia ananas (synonym, Erwinia uredovora) and Erwinia stewartii to the genus Pantoea emend. as
    Pantoea ananas (Serrano 1928) comb. nov. and Pantoea stewartii (Smith 1898) comb. nov., respectively, and description of
    Pantoea stewartii subsp. indologenes subsp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1993, 43, 162-173.
  6. Hauben (L.), Moore (E.R.B.), Vauterin(L.), Steenackers (M.), Mergaert (J.), Verdonck (L.) & Swings (J.): Phylogenetic position of
    phytopathogens within the Enterobacteriaceae. Syst. Appl. Microbiol., 1998, 21, 384-397.
  7. Skerman (V.B.D.), McGowan (V.) and Sneath (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names  Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30,
    225-420.
  8. Kim (W.S.), Gardan (L.), Rhim (S.L.) and Geider (K.): Erwinia pyrifoliae sp. nov., a novel pathogen that affects Asian pear trees
    (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai). Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1999, 49, 899-906.
  9. Ana Maria Rojas, Jose Esteban Garcia de los Rios, Marion Fischer-Le Saux, Pedro Jimenez, Paloma Reche, Sophie Bonneau,
    Laurent Sutra, Françoise Mathieu-Daude, and Michael McClelland. Erwinia toletana sp. nov., associated with Pseudomonas
    savastanoi-induced tree knots. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol November 2004 54:2217-2222.
Positive results for catalase & acid production from glucose.

Negative results for pectinase, oxidase, urease, phenilalanine deaminase, arginine dihydrolase, indole production
(c) Costin Stoica
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