Paenibacillus  popilliae
Taxonomy
Morphology
Cultural characteristics
Biochemical characters
Ecology
Pathogenicity
References
Phylum Firmicutes, Class Bacilli, Order Bacillales, Family Paenibacillaceae, Genus Paenibacillus, Paenibacillus popilliae (Dutky
1940) Pettersson, Rippere, Yousten and Priest 1999.
Historical synonyms:
Bacillus popilliae Dutky (1940), Bacillus fribourgensis Wille (1956).
Vegetative cells are Gram-negative, but sporangia and presporal forms are Gram-positive; some strains are motile with peritrichous
flagella. Size: 1.3-5.2 x 0.5-0.8 µm. Spores are ellipsoidal, central  to terminal, swelling the sporangia. Sporulation in laboratory media
is poor. Spores are produced
in vivo during growth in susceptible insect larvae. Parasporal crystal are produced.
Cream-colored colonies less than 1 mm in diameter. Maximum temperature, 31 ºC;
minimum temperature 20 ºC; optimum 28-30 ºC
Grow in anaerobic agar. Usually can grow in 2% NaCl. No growth on serial transfer in
nutrient broth or in  5% NaCl. Requires J-broth (Gordon et al., 1973) or MYGPG
(Costilow and Coulter,1971) medium. No growth at pH 5.7.
Thiamine is essential for growth; biotin, myoinositol and niacin are stimulatory
Isolated from insects. Variable resistance to vancomycin. Resistant to lysozyme 0.001%.
It causes  the more widespread of two milky diseases of the Japanise beetle (Popillia japonica Newman); the larvae become milky
white because of the prolific production of spores by the bacilli in the hemolymph .
It's a weapon for the control and elimination of the Japanise beetle and the European chafer (Amphimallon majolis Razoumowsky).
  1. Gordon R.E., Haynes W.C., Pang C.H. (1973) – The genus Bacillus . Agriculture Handbook No. 427, U.S.D.A., Washington D.C.
  2. Buchanan R.E., Gibbons N.E., Cowan S.T., Holt J.G., Liston J., Murray R.G.E., Niven C.F., Ravin A.W., Stanier R.W. ( 1974) –  
    Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, Eight Edition, The Williams & Wilkins Company, Baltimore.
  3. Priest F.G., 2009. Genus I.  Paenibacillus  Ash, Priest and Collins 1994. In: (Eds.) P.D. Vos, G. Garrity, D. Jones, N.R. Krieg, W.
    Ludwig, F.A. Rainey, K.-H. Schleifer, W.B. Whitman. Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Volume 3: The Firmicutes,
    Springer, 269-295.
  4. Petterson B., Rippere K.E., Yousten A.A. and Priest F.G., 1999. Transfer of Bacillus lentimorbus and Bacillus popilliae to the genus
    Paenibacillus with emended descriptions of Paenibacillus lentimorbus comb. nov. and Paenibacillus popilliae comb. nov. IJSB
    49, 531-540.
Positive results for acid production from: glucose & trehalose.

Negative results for catalase, phenylalanine deamination, degradation of tyrosine,
oxidase, dihydroxyacetone, starch hydrolysis, reduction of nitrate to nitrite,
decomposition of casein, Voges-Proskauer test, use of citrate, indole production,
gelatin liquefaction, acid production from: mannitol, arabinose & xylose.
(c) Costin Stoica
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