Phylum Firmicutes, Class Bacilli, Order Bacillales, Family Bacillaceae, Genus Bacillus, Bacillus coagulans Hammer 1915.
Hystorical synonyms: B. dextrolacticus Andersen and Werkman (1940), B. thermoacidificans Renco (1942), B. thermoacidurans Berry
(1933), Lactobacillus cereale Olsen (1944).
Gram-positive, 2.0-5.0 / 0.6-1.0 μm, motile, peritrichous flagella. Spores are ellipsoidal or sometimes sphaerical, subterminal or
terminal, occasionally paracentral; spores of some strains did not appreciably distend the sporangia and spores of other strains
bulging the sporangia.
On TSA at 40 ºC, after 2 days: colonies are 1-3 mm in diameter, white to cream ,
convex, with entire margins and smooth surfaces. Aerobic, may grow anaerobically.
Moderately thermophilic; growth temperature from 15-25 ºC to 55-60 ºC; optimum
temperature 40 ºC. Grows at pH 5-11(variable), optimum pH 7. Does not grow in 7%
NaCl. NaCl, allantoin or urate are not required for growth. Minimal nutritional
requirements are variable, and may include several amino acids and vitamins.
Spores are relatively scarce in soil. May multiply in acid foods. May be isolated from medical preparations and silage. B. coagulans is
economically important as a food spoilage agent, as a producer of lactic acid , thermostable enzymes, and the antimicrobial peptide
coagulin, and as a probiotic for chickens and piglets.
Can produce bacteremia & septicaemia.
- Bîlbîie V., Pozsgi N., 1985, Bacteriologie Medicală, vol.ll, Ed. Medicală, Bucureşti.
- Gordon R.E., Haynes W.C., Pang C.H. (1973) – The genus Bacillus . Agriculture Handbook No. 427, U.S.D.A., Washington D.C.
- Buchanan R.E., Gibbons N.E., Cowan S.T., Holt J.G., Liston J., Murray R.G.E., Niven C.F., Ravin A.W., Stanier R.W. ( 1974) –
Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, Eight Edition, The Williams & Wilkins Company, Baltimore.
- Buiuc D., Negut M. , 2009. Tratat de Microbiologie Clinica, editia a III-a, Editura Medicala, Bucuresti.
- N.A. Logan and P. De Vos, 2009. Genus I. Bacillus Cohn 1872. In: (Eds.) P.D. Vos, G. Garrity, D. Jones, N.R. Krieg, W. Ludwig, F.A.
Rainey, K.-H. Schleifer, W.B. Whitman. Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Volume 3: The Firmicutes, Springer, 21-127.
Positive results for: catalase, starch hydrolysis, acid production from: glucose, glycerol,
starch, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, D-mannose, fructose, galactose & melibiose.
Negative results for indole, egg-yolk reaction, urease, utilization of citrate as a source of
carbon, H2S production, lysine decarboxylase, ornithine decarboxylase, decomposition
of casein, tryptophan deaminase, decomposition of tyrosine, acid production from:
adonitol, D-arabinose, L-arabitol, dulcitol , erythritol, D- or L-fucose, inulin , 2- or 5-ketogluconate, glycogen, lyxose, mannitol,
maltose, melezitose, methyl beta-xyloside, sorbose, xylitol, L-xylose
Variable results for arginine dihydrolase, beta-galactosidase, reduction of nitrate to nitrite, hydrolysis of esculin, gelatin liquefaction,
ONPG, Voges-Proskauer test, acid production from: amygdalin, D-arabitol, arbutin, cellobiose, beta-gentibiose, gluconate,
meso-inositol, lactose, raffinose, rhamnose, ribose, sorbitol, salicin, sucrose, D-xylose,
(c) Costin Stoica